B Pharm Honors

Background

Pharmacy is the art and science of preparing and dispensing medications and the provision of drug and related information to the public. Pharmacy is basically a knowledge system which renders a health service by concerning itself with understanding drugs and their effects. It is the profession responsible for the appropriate use of medications, devices and services in order to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes. A pharmacist, then, is one who is educated and licensed to dispense drugs and to provide drug information- an expert on drugs.

The pharmacist’s intimate knowledge of drug actions, drug therapy, dosage form design and utilization, avail pharmaceutical products, and drug information sources makes him or her vital member of the health care team. The pharmacist is entrusted with the legal responsibility for the procurement, storage, control and distribution of effective pharmaceutical products and for the compounding and filling of prescription orders. Utilizing extensive training and knowledge, the pharmacist serves the patient as an advisor on drugs and encourages their safe and proper utilization. The pharmacist delivers pharmaceutical services in a variety of community and institutional health care environments and effectively utilizes recordkeeping and monitoring techniques in safeguarding the public health.

The purpose of introducing Bachelor of Pharmacy (Honors) curriculum in Varendra University is to introduce beginning pharmacy students to the technologic and scientific principles underlying the preparation of dosage forms and drug delivery systems and to their use in patient care. Through an integrated course curriculum students will gain an understanding of the interrelationships between physical pharmacy principles, biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics, dosage form design, product formulation, small- and large-scale product manufacture, and the clinical application of pharmaceuticals in patient care.

Mission and Goal

The subject of globalization and its impact nationally and internationally have generated an intense academic interest and have already produced an enormous amount of literature. Globalization offers both opportunities and challenges. It is contended that Bangladesh with its weak economy and only a few exportable cannot find many advantages to be harnessed from globalization. Especially the growth in pharmaceutical industry is very promising. About 280 pharmaceutical companies are engaged in manufacturing medicines in Bangladesh. Some of the leading companies are exporting pharmaceutical dosage forms to about 87 countries. These industries follow good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines by WHO. Bangladesh is also seriously in the way of meeting legal procedures to export drugs to Europe and the USA along with the Asian and African countries.

The professional opportunities and scopes that have been created for the pharmacy graduates in this context are enormous. Pharmacists working for pharmaceutical research, manufacturing, and distribution firms become involved in virtually every phase of drug product development, clinical testing, production, marketing, and management functions. Their knowledge of the basic and pharmaceutical sciences, dosage form design, and the technical aspects of production fits well with this major function of industrial pharmacy firms. Pharmacists with advanced degrees in the basic or pharmaceutical sciences, or in other areas of health care administration, marketing, law, or medicine contribute to their industrial employers in their respective areas of expertise.

In addition to the areas of drug research, product development , and production, many pharmacists in industry work in such varied areas as drug materials procurement; in public, trade, or professional relations; as scientific, technical, or professional information specialists; in liaison work with governmental agencies, educational or research institutions, or professional organizations; or in marketing, advertising, promotion, or pharmaceutical sales.

 

In government service, pharmacists perform professional and administrative functions, as in the development and implementation of health care programs in the design and enforcement of regulations involving drug quality standards, good manufacturing practices, and drug distribution and utilization practices. Pharmacists also practice their profession in government supported hospitals, clinics, and specialized health care institutions.

The Varendra University with its quality and vision can help producing competent pharmacy graduates who will definitely contribute towards the nation building by participating in the pharmaceutical industry for the production and marketing of quality medicine.

Course Structure

A 4-year (8 semesters) Pharmacy undergraduate programme has been designed including topics of recent trends in this field. The principal objectives of this curriculum are-

1)      To impart scientific knowledge for the identification, formulations, preparation, standardization, quality control and uses of drugs, medicines and effective management of their distribution and sale.

2)      To produce a skilled manpower to manage the affairs of hospital pharmacies, pharmaceutical industries, community pharmacy services, drug administration and other organizations in drug research, marketing, sales and administration.

3)      To encourage research on different fields of pharmacy so as to develop newer techniques of formulation, quality control and standardization of drugs.

The core courses of the curriculum consist of the following subjects:

  1. Pharmaceutics includes Pharmaceutical Technology, Industrial Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Hospital Pharmacy, Dispensing, Pharmaceutical Marketing and Sale, Management, Pharmacy law and Administration, Physical Pharmaceutics, Dosage Form Design, Pharmaceutical Engineering, Cosmetology and Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics.
  2. Pharmaceutical Chemistry includes both Inorganic and Organic chemistry, Physical chemistry, synthetic and natural medicinal products, Pharmaceutical analysis and quality control.
  3. Pharmacology includes General Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacy, Community Pharmacy, Drug Interaction and Toxicology.
  4. Pharmacognosy includes various aspects of natural crude drugs and other economic products of pharmaceutical importance, Traditional Medicine and Forensic Pharmacy.
  5. Physiology & Pathology are considered as the basis of the Pharmacology course given in advance years of study.
  6. Mathematics and Biostatistics are required for pharmaceutical calculations of formulation and statistical analysis and interpretation of biological studies and experimental results.
  7. Computer course is included for understanding practical uses of computers in health services, research, manufacturing and quality assurance activities.

 

[N.B.: The course curriculum for B. Pharm (Honors) can be revised at any time to meet the global demand. The revised curriculum will be submitted to the competent authority, if required as per Private University Act.]

Academic System & Evaluation Method

 

1. Award of Degree

Varendra University will award B. Pharm (Honors) degree to the students completing the required credits with a minimum CGPA (Cumulative Grade Point Average) of 2.50 on a scale of 4.00. Required credits for B. Pharm degree is 152 credits as per the standard of International and Bangladesh Pharmacy Council.

2.Duration of a Semester

The Pharmacy program consists of 8 (eight) semesters for B. Pharm spreading over four academic years. Duration of each semester is 24 working weeks, which may be divided into classes, preparatory leave and semester final examinations as follows:

 

Working weeks  
i.   Classes both Theoretical and Lab 18 weeks
ii. Preparatory leave and semester final examination  6 weeks

Total =

24 weeks

Apart from the 24 working weeks, the university remains open for clearance/ improvement/ carryover examinations, finalization of results, and admission of students.

3.Admission

There are two semesters in every year (Summer and Spring). Admission for 1st year, 1st semester is open in every semester. Notice for admission in B. Pharm will be published in different national dailies.

4.Admission Requirement

Students seeking admission to pursue the course for the degree of Bachelor of Pharmacy should have passed both the SSC & HSC with at least second division or total CGPA 6.5(Individually at least 2.5) from Science group and must have Chemistry and Biology. Besides, students who have passed 5 subjects in ‘O’ level and 2 subjects in ‘A’ level from science background must have Chemistry and Biology in both ‘A’ & ‘O’ level for admission in B.Pharm program.

5. Academic Standards

In keeping with the mission and goals in mind, the Undergraduate programme in Pharmacy will strive to ensure high academic standards by implementing well-designed curricula, carefully selecting high quality students and faculty, utilizing modern and effective instructional methods and aides, and by continuously monitoring and rigorously evaluating all the pertinent activities and systems.  A special feature of teaching will be the tutorial / workshop sessions designed to assist students in learning application of the concepts and theories.

6.Examination, Evaluation and Grading

  • Examinations
  1. The performance of a student in a theoretical course is estimated on the basis of:

              a)  Continuous assessment (Attendance, class performance, quizzes and/or assignments etc)

              b)  Semester final examination,

c)  Clearance examination (for clearance of the course(s) not passed in the current semester or in the previous semester(s), if any.

d)  Improvement examination, if any.

The performance of a student in a Lab course will be based on attendance, class performance, practical examinations, etc.

  • Grading System

The grading process will undoubtedly be transparent. The performance of the students is evaluated throughout the semester through class tests, quizzes, assignments, and midterm exams. End of semester evaluation includes final examinations, term papers, project reports etc. Numerical scores earned by a student in tests, examinations, assignments etc. are cumulated and converted to letter grades

Calculation of Grade Point Average (GPA) can be explained as follows:

Numerical Grade Letter Grade Grade Point
80% or above A+ 4.00
75% to less than 80% A 3.75
70% to less than 75% A- 3.50
65% to less than 70% B+ 3.25
60% to less than 65% B 3.00
55% to less than 60% B- 2.75
50% to less than 55% C+ 2.50
45% to less than 50% C 2.25
40% to less than 45% C- 2.00
Less than 40% F 0.00

Suppose a student has completed five courses in a semester and obtained the following    grades:

Courses Credits Grade Grade Point
Course 1 3 A+ 4.00
Course 2 3 B 3.00
Course 3 3 A 3.75
Course 4 2 B+ 3.25
Course 5 1 A- 3.50

 

Then his/ her Grade Point Average (GPA) for the semester will be computed as follows:

GPA = 3(4.00) + 3(3.00) + 3(3.75) + 2(3.25) + 1(3.50)/(3 + 3 + 3 + 2 + 1)= 3.52

Thus, GPA= Sum of (Grade Points x Credits)/ Sum of credits attempted.

The distribution of marks for the performance evaluation is as follows:

i.Theory Courses
Programs Marks
1. Quizzes/ Class Tests/ Assignments/Attendance 20
2. Mid Term Examination 30
3. Final Examination (comprehensive), Projects 50
Total Marks 100
ii.Courses
Programs Marks
1. Reports/ Class Tests/ Participation / Viva-Voce 30
2. Experiments 30
3. Final Examination 40
Total Marks 100
iii.Thesis / Project

Thesis / Project work will be spread over two semesters (7th & 8th). The mark distribution for the Thesis / Project will be as follows:

Programs Marks
1. Viva-Voce (End of each semester)- 1 Credit (30) 30
2. Lab Work (Experiment + Table Viva)- 1 Credit (25+5) 30
3. Project Work (Report + Presentation) -2 Credit (50+10) 60
4. In-plant Training, Report Writing & Presentation- 2 Credit (50+10) 60

iv.Class Attendance:

Class attendance is compulsory for every student. 5% of total marks in every course is allocated for attendance in classes including tutorials and s. The basis for awarding marks for attendance is as follows:

Attendance Marks
90% and above 5
85% to less than 90% 4
80% to less than 85% 3
75% to less than 80% 2
70% to less than 75% 1
Less than 70% 0

If a student does not attend a minimum of 70% of the total classes including tutorials and s, s/he will not be allowed to take the final exam.

Course Code : BP- 112

Course Title : Organic Pharmacy

Course Credit : 3.00

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Detailed of the Course:
  1. General Introduction: Historical background of organic chemistry, Basic concepts on polarity (polar and non-polar solutes), Ionization, Carbonium ions, Carbanion ions, Hydride, Protons, Free-radicals, Hydrogen bonding, Electrophyle, Nucleophyle, Acids, Bases, etc.
  2. Chemistry of Aliphatic Compounds: Introduction, Nomenclature, Methods of preparation, Physical and Chemical properties and Pharmaceutical applications of Hydrocarbons (alkane, alkene and alkyne), Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Ester, Ethers, Amines, Amides and Carboxylic acids.
  3. Chemistry of Aromatic Compounds:

a) Aromaticity, Resonanace and Orientation

b) Preparations, Properties, Reactions and Pharmaceutical importances of phenols, Sulfonic acid, Carboxylic acid, Benzylaldehyde and Diazonium compounds.

 

Recommended Books:

  1. Textbook of Organic Chemistry- Bahl and Bahl
  2. Introduction to Organic Chemistry- Bahl and Bahl
  3. Organic Chemistry- Morrison and Boyd
  4. Organic Chemistry (Vol I and II)- Finar
  5. Organic Chemistry- Feiser and Feiser

 

Course Code : BP- 113

Course Title : Physical Pharmacy- 1

Course Credit : 3.00

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Detailed of the Course:

1.

Properties of matters:
 
  1. a. Gases State: Proportion of gases, Gas laws, Diffusion of gases, Kinetic theoryof gases, Van der waal’s equation, Principle of corresponding states, Liquefaction of gases, uses of liquefied gas.

 

  1. Liquid State:
  1. i. Vaporization and vapor pressure, measurement of vapor pressure.
  2. ii. Surface tension, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, measurement, application in pharmacy;
  3. iii. Viscosity, Poiseuillies’s equation and measurement of viscosity,
  4. iv. Application in pharmacy.
  5. c. The Solid State: General proportion of solids, Types of solid, symmetry, types of crystal, X-ray diffraction, melting point, polymorphism and dilatometric analysis of compounds. Bragg’s Equation, Measurement of diffraction angle, isomorphism, crystal defects, liquid crystal.
   

2.

Solutions: Types and properties of solution, Units of concentration, Ideal and real solutions, Henry’s law and Distribution law, Colligative properties of dilute solutions, Partial coefficient.

3.

a. Ionic Equilibrium: Proton theory of acids and bases, Ionization of water, pH, Determination of pH, Titration curves of weak acids and bases, Ionic strength.
  b. Chemical Equilibrium: Law of mass action, criteria of chemical equilibrium, determination of equilibrium constant, application of law of mass action to homogenous and heterogeneous equilibrium. Gibb’s five energy change, Le-Chatelier principle and its application.

4.

a. Thermodynamics: First law of thermodynamics, work, energy and heat, heat change at constant volume and constant pressure, reversible, irreversible, isothermal and adiabatic and spontaneous changes, enthalpy and heat content.
  b. Thermochemistry: Heat of reaction and Hess’s law of constant heat summation.
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recommended Books:

  1. Principle of Physical Chemistry- Haque and Nawab
  2. Physical Chemistry- Atkins
  3. Physical Pharmacy- Martin
  4. Physical Pharmacy- Bahl and Tuli

Course Code : BP- 114

Course Title : Pharmacognosy- I

Course Credit : 3.00

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Detailed of the Course:
  1. General introduction: Definition, scope, historical background of Pharmacognosy. Its relation to other disciplines of Pharmacy.
  2. Drug literatures and Publications: Pharmacopoeia, formulary, pharmaceutical codex, index, official, unofficial, non-official and INN drugs (new drugs).
  3. Crude drugs: A general view of their origin, distribution, cultivation, collection, drying, storage, commerce and quality control. Classification of crude drugs, evaluation of crude drugs, Drug adulteration.
  4. Phytochemistry: Extraction, separation (chromatographic techniques) and types of plant constituents, primary and secondary metabolites.
  5. Lipids: Definition, classification, biosynthesis and physicochemical properties of lipids (Fats, oils and waxes). Brief studies emphasizing on sources, chemical constituents and pharmaceutical uses of castor oil, linseed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, chaulmoogra oil and Beeswax.
  6. Vitamins containing drugs: Cod liver oil, shark liver oil and Hilsa fish liver oil.
  7. Carbohydrate and related compounds: Definition, classification, properties and biosynthesis.
    1. a. Monosaccharides and oligosaccharides: Glucose, fructose, sucrose, dextrose, etc.
    2. b. Polysaccharides and polysaccharide-containing drugs: Starch, dextrin, cellulose, etc.
    3. c. Gums and mucilages: Tragacanth, acacia, sodium alginate, agar etc.
    4. Surgical dressing and fibres.

Recommended Books:

  1. Pharmacognosy- Tyler and Brady
  2. Pharmacognosy- Clause and Tyler
  3. Pharmacognosy- Trease and Evans
  4. Pharmacognosy- Mohammad Ali

Course Code : BP- 115

Course Title : English for Pharmacy

Course Credit : 2.00

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Detailed of the course:
  1. Vocabulary: Transformation of words, Prefixes, Suffixes, Parts of speech;
  2. Phrase level: Prepositional phrase, Infinitive phrase, Participle phrase, Gerund phrase, Noun phrase, Adjective phrase, Adverb phrase.
  3. Sentence level: Basic sentence structures, Variations of sentence, Structures, Structure analysis, Transformation of sentence (Simple, Complex and Compound).
  4. Clauses: Adjective clause, Adverb clause, Noun clause, Relative pronoun, Conjuctions.
  5. Paragraph writing: Organizing of paragraph, Techniques of writing paragraph, Transitions of words.
  6. Punctuation, Translation, Comprehension and Essay writing.
  7. Practice for IELTS, TOFEL etc.

Recommended Books:

  1. Thompson & Martinct: A Practical English Grammer;
  2. Maurice Imhoof: From Paragraph to Essay;
  3. Michael Swan: Practical English Usage;
  4. W. Stannard Allen: Living English Structure;
  5. Oxford Dictionary of Current English.

Course Code : BP- 116

Course Title : Inorganic Pharmacy Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

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Detailed of the Course:

  1. Qualitative and quantitive analysis of radicals: Basic radicals: Na, K, Ca, Ag, Mn, Fe, Co, Mg, Al, NH4, Cu and acid radicals: CO3, halides, citrates, SO4, SO3, NO3, etc
  2. Identification of unknown inorganic salts by qualitative analysis .

Course Code : BP- 117

Course Title : Organic Pharmacy Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

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Detailed of the Course:

Qualitative analysis of organic compounds

a) Detection of elements

b) Identification of functional groups

c) Determination of melting points.

d) Test of purity

Course Code : BP- 118

Course Title : Physical Pharmacy- I Lab

Course Credit : 1.00

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Detailed of the Course:

  1. Determination of molecular weight of substances like CHCl3, CCl4 by Victor Meyer’s method.

a) Determination of molecular weight of inorganic salts by chemical method.

b) Determination of heats of solution of simple salts by calorimeter.

c) Determination of heats of solution of sparingly soluble samples in water by measuring solubility as a function of temperature (application of Vants- Hoff equation).

d) Determination of distribution coefficients of benzoic acid between (i) hexane and octane (ii) ether and water.

  1. Determination of heat of neutralization of HCl with NaOH .

Course Code : BP- 119

Course Title : Pharmacognosy- I Lab

Course Credit : 1.00

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Detailed of the Course:

1. Study on some medicinal plants

2. Identification of plant leaves- their botanical name, nature and medicinal uses

3. Identification of sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, maltose, pantose, sucrose etc) by routine tests of organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I

Course Code : BP- 120

Course Title : Oral Assessment

Course Credit : 1.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

Oral assessment will be held on the basis of the courses studied during the semester.

First Year 2nd Semester

Course Code : BP- 121

Course Title : Inorganic Pharmacy- II

Course Credit : 3.00

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Detailed of the Course:

1. General Properties, Preparation and Uses of Pharmaceutically important elementa and salts -Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Iron, Copper, Aluminium, Zinc, iodine, sulfur, boric acid, selenium and cadmium sulfides.
2.Gastrointestinal Agents: Antacids, its preparations and applications (Al and Mg), protective and adsorbents; saline cathartics; their preparations with applications.
3.Pharmaceutical Excipients and Packaging Materials

a) Antioxidants, solvents

b) Pharmaceutically acceptable glass and glasswares, metal containers (Sn, Al, Pb, etc).

4.Radioactive Elements: Radioactivity, types of radiation, storage of radioactive products. Chemistry, properties, uses of some radioactive compounds used in Pharmacy.
5.Topical Agents: Antimicrobial, astringents and protectives.
6. Environmental Chemistry

a) Environmental pollutants: Gases (SO2, SO3, CO, NO, HCl, NO2 etc.), hydrocarbons, cigarettes, smokes, suspended particulate, pesticides, gasoline and industrial waste, the detrimental effects of pollutants.

b) Heavy metal toxicity: Mercury, arsenic, lead, iron and copper poisoning – prevention and treatment.

Impurities in Medicinal Substances: Source, principles, qualitative and quantitative analysis and test of purity.

 

Recommended Books:

  1. Modern Inorganic Chemistry- S. Z. Haider
  2. Inorganic Chemistry- Lee
  3. Textbook of Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Rogers
  4. Inorganic, Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Block and Wilson
  5. Bentley and Driver’s Textbook of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  6. Modern Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Discher

Course Code : BP- 122

Course Title : Physical Pharmacy- II

Course Credit : 3.00

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Detailed of the course:

1. Reaction Kinetics and stability of pharmaceuticals: Chemical kinetics, drug decomposition, stabilization of medicinal products, accelerated stability testing and catalysis.
2. Phase equilibria: Phase, components and degree of freedom, The phase rule, and its thermodynamic deviation, The phase diagram of water and sulphur systems, Partially miscible liquid pails: The phenol and water, nicotine and water system, Completely miscible liquid pails and their separation by functional distillation, Freeze drying (lypophilization).
3. Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics: Second law of thermodynamics entropy, Gibb’s free energy, third law of thermodynamics.
4.Electrochemistry:

a) Conductance of electrolytes, concept of E. M. F, electrode, various types of electrochemical cells, relation between electrical and chemical energies, oxidation-reduction systems, solutions of electrolytes.

b) Electrode and cell potentials, energies involved in electrode processes; reference electrodes, buffer solutions, measurement of pH, potentiometric titration, concentration cell etc.

 

5. Surface and interfacial phenomena: Adsorption and interface, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm, BET equation, electrical properties of interface, electrical double layer, Nernst and Zeta potential, Gibb’s equation, sprhding and surface active agent emulsifier, detergents and antifoaming agents, surfactants and drug activity, surfactants and pharmaceutical products.
6. Rheology: Newtonian and non-Newtonian systems, yield value, plastic, pseudoplastic and dilatant flow, thixotropy. Determination of rheologic properties, viscoelasticity, psychorheology, application in pharmacy. Rheologic property of suspension.

Recommended Books:

  1. Principle of Physical Chemistry- Haque and Nawab
  2. Physical Chemistry- Atkins
  3. Physical Pharmacy- Martin
  4. Physical Pharmacy- Bahl and Tuli
  5. Elements of Physical Chemistry- Lewis and Glasstone

Course Code : BP- 123

Course Title : Physiology and Anatomy- I

Course Credit : 3.00

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Detailed of the Course:

  1. Cell and Tissue
    a. Cell: Structure and function, cell inclusions, division of cells.
    b. Tissue: Definition, classification, structures and functions of epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscular tissue and nervous tissue.
  2. Body Fluid: Fluid compartments, volume and composition of ECF, ICF; Maintenance and regular of fluid volumes and their compositions.
  3. I. Blood
    a. Plasma: Electrolytes, proteins and other organic constituents.
    b. Blood cells: Formation and destruction, cell constituents, functions of different blood cells.
    c. Haemoglobin: Structure and function, haemoglobinopathy, thalassemia.
    d. Anaemia: Causes and classification.
    e. Blood coagulation and anticoagulation.
    f. Blood group and transfusion.

II. Lymph: Composition, function, circulation and function, lymph nodes and lymphatics.

  1. Cardiovascular system
    a. Heart: Structure and properties of cardiac muscles, conduction system of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sound, cardiac out-put and ECG.
    b. Blood vessels: Type of blood vessels and their function.
    c. Blood pressure (BP): Measurements and regulation of BP, control of BP (neural and humoral).
    d. Regional blood circulation: Pulmonary, hepatic, cerebral, capillary and coronary circulation.
  2. Digestive system: Structure of the different parts of the alimentary tract; composition, function and regulation of the secretion of different digestive juices; digestion and absorption of food stuffs, movement of alimentary tract.
  3. Respiratory system: Functional anatomy of the respiratory system, mechanism of respiration, lung volumes and capacities, gaseous exchange and transport (O2 and CO2); regulation of respiration (nervous and chemical); hypoxia-causes and classification; periodic (abnormal) breathing, Chene- stokes breathing, Kussmal breathing and breathing at high altitude.
  4. Functions of different organs- Liver, spleen, kidney

Recommended Books:

  1. Human Physiology (Vol I & II)– C. C. Chatterjee
  2. Medical Physiology– Guyton
  3. Review of Medical Physiology– W. F. Ganong

Course Code : BP- 124

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Immunology

Course Credit : 3.00

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Detailed of the Course:

1. Introduction: Historical development, scope of microbiology with special reference to pharmaceutical sciences.
2. Sterilization: Principle of sterilization, classification, factors affecting thermal sterilization, sterilization by heat, gas, radiation and filtration, aseptic technique and sterility testing.
3. Microscopy: Bright field, dark field, fluorescence, phase contrast and electron microscopy. Microscopic examination of microorganisms, wet mount and hanging drop techniques. Microbial staining.
4. Virus: a) General properties, classification and nomenclature, morphology, multiplication and cultivation.

b) Bacteriophage: Morphology and life cycle.

5. Bacteria

a) General characteristics of bacteria.

b) General and cellular morphology – size, shape, fine structures and movement.

c) Cultivation of bacteria: nutritional requirements, factors affecting growth, bacteriological media.

d) Reproduction and growth: Modes of cell division, normal growth cycle, growth curve, synchronous growth and measurement of growth.

e) Pure culture and cultural characteristics: Methods of isolation, maintenance and preservation of pure cultures, colony characteristics and characteristics of broth culture.

6. a) Fungi- morphology, classification, pharmaceutical importance, etc.

b) Brief study of rickettsia and actinomycetes.

7. Microsial Contaminants of Pharma Products.

Definition, factors affecting the Microsial Contamination, Principles of microbiological analysis, Bioassay of Antibiotics, vitamins, Microbial count for Antacids and water.

8. Immunology

  1. Introduction to immune response: Innate and acquired immunity, complement, self and non-self discrimination and source and chemistry of antigen.
  2. Cells involved in immune system: macrophage and other antigen presenting cells, T cells, B cells, etc.
  3. Antibody: Classification, chemistry and function.
  4. Hypersensitivity: Immediate and delayed type hypersensitivity reactions.

Recommended Books:

  1. Microbiology- Pelczar, Kreig and Chan
  2. Microbiology: An Introduction- Tortora, Funkee and Case
  3. Pharmaceutical Microbiology- Harris
  4. Dispensing for Pharmaceutical Students- Cooper and Gunn

Course Code : BP- 125

Course Title : Bio-statistics and Computer Science

Course Credit : 2.00 + 1.00

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Detailed of the Course:

Bio-statistics

  1. Bio-statistics: Application in pharmacy, sample and population, simple and random sampling, sampling distribution and standard error.
  2. Measures of central tendency: Mean (arithmetic, geometric and harmonic) median and mode.
  3. Graphical and Diagrammatic representation: Graphs and diagrams.
  4. Measures of dispersion: Range, mean deviation, co-efficient of variation and standard deviation.
  5. Probability distribution: Normal, binomial and Poisson distribution, derivation means and variances.
  6. Basic idea of significance test: Properties of distribution, distribution test and significance of distribution test. The correlation of measurements and regression analysis.
  7. Bio-statistics and Pharmaceutical calculation: Dosage calculation, Statistical methods utilized in pharmaceutics, ANOVA, design of experiment.
 

 

  1. Study design: Experimental and non-experimental design, cross sectional study, cohort study, case-control study.
  2. Sampling: Concept of sampling. Sampler designs such as simple random sampling, stratified sampling & systematic sampling.
 

 

Computer Science

  1. Computer: History, classification and application in pharmaceutical analysis.
  2. Organization of computer: A general review of INPUT/OUTPUT media and devices, functional parts and organization of CPU, hardware, software, batch processing, RAM, ROM, etc.
  3. Operating systems: Introduction to DOS and Windows command.
  4. Computer packages: Micro Soft-Word, Power Point, Excel and Outlook, Photoshop and Kekule.
  5. Application of Computer in Pharmacy: Use of Internet for pharmacy education and Industrial pharmacy.

Recommended Books:

  1. Computer Science – A modern introduction: Goldschlager and Lister
  2. Fundamentals of Computers: V Rajaraman
  3. Work Out Computer Studies GCSE (Macmillan Work Out S.): Graham Taylor

Course Code : BP- 126

Course Title : Physical Pharmacy- II Lab

Course Credit : 1.00

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Detailed of the Course:

  1. Determination of viscosity of pure liquids such as glycerin, alcohol and nitrobenzene using Ostwald viscometer.
  2. Study of variation of a liquid with temperature using Ostwald viscometer.
  3. Determination of velocity constant of the hydrolysis of methyl-ethyl acetate catalyzed by HCL.
  4. Determination of absorption isotherm of oxalic (or acetic) acid from aqueous solution by charcoal and calculation of the constant in Frendlich’s equation.
  5. Determination of titration curve for the titration of a weak base-with a strong acid and a strong base with a weak acid pH metrically and hence-finding their strengths.
  6. Determination of solubility of a sparingly soluble salt in water by conductance measurement.
  7. Determination of velocity constant for the hydrolysis of an ester in the basic medium by conductance measurement.
  8. Determination of the molecular weight of an organic solid like camphor by cryoscopy.
  9. Determination of the molecular weight of a solid like naphthalene by ebullioscopy.
  10. Determination of dissociation constants of some organic weak acids by potentiometric method.

 

Course Code : BP- 127

Course Title : Physiology and Anatomy- I Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

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Detailed of the Course:

  1. Study of compound microscope
  2. Microscopically study of blood cells
  3. Different types of WBC, erythrocytes and platelets
  4. Examination of hemoglobin
  5. Differential count of WBC
  6. Total count of RBC and WBC
  7. Determination of clotting and bleeding time
  8. Examination of clot under the microscope
  9. Effect of chemical agents of RBC
  10. Fragility test of RBC
  11. Determination of erythrocvtes sedimentation rate
  12. Examination of haemin crystals.

 

Course Code : BP- 128

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Microbiology Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

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Detailed of the Course:

1. Preparation of bacterial media
2. Culture of bacteria
3. Identification and characterization of bacteria
4. Staining of bacterial cells and spores
5. Preparation of pure cultures and its identification
6. Bacterial counts
7. Identification and characterization of fungus.

Course Code : BP- 129

Course Title : Oral Assessment

Course Credit : 1.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

Oral assessment will be held on the basis of the courses studied during the semester.

Second Year 1st Semester

Course Code : BP- 211

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Analysis- I

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Introduction of Pharmaceutical Analysis: Importance of both qualitative and quantitative analysis in Pharmaceutical quality control. Sampling, precision and accuracy of representative samples, methods of expressing concentrations, primary and secondary standards.
  2. Aqueous Acid-Base Titrations: Acid base concepts, distribution of acid base species with pH of the medium acid-base titration for determination of weakly acidic and basic pharmaceuticals. Indicators theory, selection and applications.
  3. Oxidation-Reduction Titrations: Principles and concepts. Determination involving potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate and potassium bromide and iodometric determination, miscellaneous oxidation and reduction titrations, indicators and applications.
  4. Complexometric Titrations: Introduction, complexes and chelates, stability of complex ions, titrations based on complex formation types of complexometric titrations technique employed in chelatometric titration, methods of end point detection, titration selectivity and masking reagents.
  5. Non-aqueous Acid Base Titrations: Theoretical considerations and principles, of Bronsted Lowry theory of acids and bases, non-aqueous solvents. Titration of weak acids and weak bases applications and scope of non aqueous titration.
  6. Determination or Moisture Content in Pharmaceutical products: Principle and scope, physical and chemical methods of water determination. Karl-Fischer principle. Procedure, chemistry, methodology, equipment, end point defection and limitations.
  7. Principles of Microbiological analysis of Antibiotics and vitamins

Recommended Books:

  1. Quantitative Pharmaceutical Analysis (Vol I & II)- Chatten
  2. A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis – K. A. Connors
  3. Quantitative Inorganic Analysis (Vol I & II)- Vogel
  4. British Pharmacopoeia
  5. United State Pharmacopoeia

Course Code : BP- 212

Course Title : Biomolecular Pharmacy

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Amino acids and Proteins: Introduction, Definition, structure, acidity and basicity, iso-electric point, relations and chemical synthesis of amino acids. Essential and nonessential amino acids, peptide synthesis and denaturation, classification, important reactions, sequence determination, test of purity, protein as drugs.
  2. Carbohydrates: Chemistry, isomerism, stereochemistry, aldoses, ketoses oxidation, effect of alkali, synthesis of aldoses and ketoses by various methods, optical activity, hemiacetal and acetal forms of glucose, ring size determination, disaccharides, structure determination of polysaccharides, starch, cellulose, glycogen.
  3. Lipids: Chemistry, biosynthesis of fats and fatty acids, catabolism, fatty acid cycle, b-oxidation, ketone bodies, ketosis, ketourea, ketoacidosis, lactic acid and acidosis, phosphoglycerides, bile salts.
  4. Nucleic Acids: Chemistry of nucleic acids, bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, polynucleotides, nucleoproteins, RNA, DNA, Replication of DNA, codons, anticodons, polypeptides, genetic engineering and its application in Pharmacy.
  5. Enzymes and Coenzymes: Chemistry, classification, catalytic activity, enzyme specificity, mechanism of enzyme actions, enzyme catalyzed reactions. Coenzymes Thiamine pyrophosphate, flavin coenzyme, TH4, pentothenic acid, NAD+, NADPH, pyridoxal pyrophosphate, biotin, vitamin B12 co-enzymes, etc.

Recommended Books:

  1. Textbook of Organic Chemistry- Bahl and Bahl
  2. Introduction to Organic Chemistry- Bahl and Bahl
  3. Organic Chemistry- Morrison and Boyd
  4. Organic Chemistry (Vol I and II)- Finar
  5. Organic Chemistry- Feiser and Feiser

Course Code : BP- 213

Course Title : Pharmacognosy- II

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

1. Phytochemistry and Pharmaceutical uses of the following plant constituents:

I. Glycosides and glycoside-containing drugs: Classification and biosynthesis of glycosides.

a) Phenols and phenolic glycosides.

i) Simple phenols: Vanilla and vanillin, capsicum

ii) Tannins: Galls or nutgall, hamamelis.

iii) Anthraquinone glycosides: Cascara sagrada; aloe, senna, rhubarb.

b) Saponins, cardioactive drugs and other steroids.

i) Steroidal saponin: Sarsaparilla root, ginseng, glycerhizia.

ii) Pentocyclic triterpenoid saponin: Liquorice root.

iii) Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis, strophanthus, squill.

iv) Cyanogenic glycoside: Wild cherry, mustard.

v) Miscellaneous isoterpenoids: Gentain, valerian root, quassia, fish betries, santonica flower, Saffron.

II. Alkaloids:

a) Classification and biosynthesis of tropane, quinoline, isoquinoline and indole alkaloids.

b) Tropane: Belladona, stramonium, hyoscyamus and coca leaf

c) Quinoline: Cinchona, cusparia bark.

d) lsoquinoline: Ipecac, opium, sanguinaria, curare.

e) Indole: Rauwolfia, nux vomica, ergot, catharanthus.

f) Imidazole: Pilocarpine,

g) Steroidal: Veretrum viride, aconite.

h) Norlupinane: Lupinus sp.

i) Purine base: Coffee, tea and cocoa.

III. Volatile oils and related terpenoids: Methods of obtaining volatile oils, chemistry, their medicinal and commercial uses, biosynthesis of some important volatile oil.

a) Terpenes or sesquiterpenes: Turpentine, juniper, cade.

b) Alcohols: Coriander, sandalwood, rose.

c) Esters: Peppermint, lavender, rosemary.

d) Aldehydes: Cinnamon bark, lemon peel, lemon grass.

e) Ketones: Spearmint, caraway; dill, camphor.

f) Phenols: Clove, thyme, cinnamon leaf, ajowan

g) Ethers: Fennel, nutmeg, eucalyptus, anise, cajunut.

h) Peroxides: Chenopodium.

i) Others: Wintergreen, bitter almond.

  1. Poisonous Plants and Natural Pesticides: Datura, poison hemlock, water hemlock, ipomoea, tobacco. pyrethurm flower, derris and lonchocarpus, strychnine, neem, etc.
  1. Phenolic compounds and tannins: Chemical nature and test for tannins, some tannin containing drugs such as Nutgall and Catechu.
  1. Resin and resin combinations (resin, oleoresin, oleo gum resin, balsam): Jalap, Cannabis, Capsicum, Ginger, Myrrh, Tolu Balsam, and Benzoin.

 

Recommended Books:

  1. Pharmacognosy- Tyler and Brady
  2. Pharmacognosy- Clause andTyler
  3. Pharmacognosy- Trease and Evans
  4. Pharmacognosy- Mohammad Ali

Course Code : BP- 214

Course Title : Physiology and Anatomy- II

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

1. Nervous system: Properties of nerve, cells, nerve impulses and their transmissions. Reflex action, principal afferent and efferent paths of CNS, Functions of spinal cord and brain, the autonomic nervous system, Properties of synapses and synaptic transmission.

  1. Metabolism: Metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, protein and nucleoprotein. Vitamins and minerals, their physiological proper-ties and function,
  2. Excretory system: Structure and function of kidney, composition and formation of urine, renal circulation, renal regulation of acid base balance, renal diseases and kidney function tests, physiology of micturation, Artificial kidney: basic principles, method and applications.
  3. Temperature control: Heat production and heat dissipation, hypothalamus and nervous factors involved in body temperature regulation, function of skin.
  1. Endocrine glands: Structure and function of testis thyroid, parathyroid, suprarenal and pancreas.
  2. Reproduction: Structure and function of testis, ovary, uterus and placenta. Menstrual and oestrous cycles, Diagnosis of pregnancy, oestrogen, progesterone, androgens and gonadotropic hormones.

Recommended Books:

  1. Human Physiology (Vol I & II)– C. C. Chatterjee
  2. Medical Physiology– Guyton
  3. Review of Medical Physiology– W. F. Ganon

Course Code : BP- 215

Course Title : Basic Pharmaceutics – I

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Pre-formulation: Preliminary evaluation and molecular optimization, bulk characterization of the material, crystalinity and polymorphism, thermal properties, hygroscopicity, particle characterization, bulk density, powder flow properties, solubility analysis, pka determinations, pH solubility profile, effect of temperature, solubilization, partition co-efficient, dissolution, stability analysis, solution stability and solid state stability.
  2. Pharmaceutical excipients: Chemistry, physical properties and uses of the following excipients acidifying agents, aerosol propellants, air displacement agents, alkalizing agents, anti-foaming agents, anti-microbial preservatives, anti-oxidants, buffering agents, chelating agents, colors, complexing agents, desiccants, emulsifying agents, flavoring agents and perfumes, glidants, anti-caking agents, humectant, ointment bases, plasticizer, solvents, stiffening agents, tablet binders, tablet/ capsule lubricants, tablet disintegrants, tonicity agent, water repelling agent, wetting & solubulizing agents.
  3. Polymer Science for pharmaceuticals: Pharmaceutical applications, physical, chemical and mechanical properties, molecular weight and distribution, polymer solution properties, plasticization and elastomers.
  4. Pharmaceutical calculation: Mathematical principles, common and decimal fractions, exponents and power and root, logarithmic calculations, reducing and enlarging formulae, ratio and proportion, percentage calculations, ration strength, concentration measurement.
  5. General approaches to drug development: Drug approval process, pre-clinical testing, animal models, manufacturing issue, clinical trial design.

6. Course review.

Recommended Books:

  1. Dispensing for pharmaceutical students- Cooper & Gunn
  2. American Pharmacy- Sprowl.
  3. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences
  4. Dispensing of medication- Husa & martin
  5. Pharmaceuitical Practice- Aulton
  6. An introduction to Pharmaceutical Formulations- Fishburn
  7. An introuduction to Pharmaceutical Productions- Polderman

Course Code : BP- 216

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Analysis- I Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Assay of acetyl salicylic acid in aspirin tablets.
  2. Determination of potency of penicillin tablets.
  3. Non- aqueous assay of phenobarbitone tablets.
  4. Determination of calcium in solid & liquid dosage form by complexometric titration.
  5. Assay of promethazine hydrochloride.
  6. Assay of aluminum hydroxide gel.
  7. Assay of magnesium and aluminum from antacid preparation.
  8. Determination of iodine value and saponification value.

Course Code : BP- 217

Course Title : Pharmacognosy- II Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Pharmacognostic study of a few selected powdered drugs
  2. Chromatographic techniques: Analysis of plant extracts by thin layer chromatography.
  3. Study of volatile oils and some volatile-oil containing drugs: Caraway, clove, cinnamon, peppermint etc.
  4. Study of few important cardioactive drugs: Digitalis, strophanthus and squill.
  5. Study of alkaloids and some alkaloid-containing drugs: Belladonna, strammonium, cinchona, rauwlfia, tea, coffee, tobacco, ergot, ephedra, nux vomiica and areca.
  6. Separation of different drugs by thin layer chromatography

Course Code : BP- 218

Course Title : Physiology and Anatomy-II Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Demonstration of the effects of temperature on toad heart.
  2. Demonstration of the effects of stannous ligature on frog’s heat
  3. Demonstration of the effects of drugs on toad heart
  4. Demonstration of the effects of electrolytes (Na, K, Ca etc) on toad heart.
  5. Recording of respiration by stethograph.
  6. Effect of ptyalin of saliva on starch.
  7. Collection of gastric juice: Tests for gastric acidity.
  8. Estimation of blood sugar in normal person

Course Code: BP- 219

Course Title: Oral Assessment

Course Credit : 1.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

Oral assessment will be held on the basis of the courses studied during the semester.

Second Year 2nd Semester

Course Code : BP- 221

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Analysis- II

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

1. Separation Technique:

a) Introduction, principles, procedures and theories of column chromatography and gel filtration techniques, thin layer chromatography, ion exchange chromagraphy methods of detection and applications.

b) HPLC: Introduction theory and principle, instrumentation, characteristics of stationary and mobile phases, reversed phase HPLC and application.

2.Instrumental Methods of Analysis:

a) Absorption spectroscopy: Visible, IR and UV spectroscopy

b) Polarimetry: Introduction, origin of optical rotation, molecular requirements for optical rotatory power, methods used in polarimetry instruction and application.

c) Fluorometry: Introduction, theory and principle of fluoroscence, and chemical structure spectro-photometry, application, factors influencing intensity of fluorescence and application of fluorometry in pharmaceutical analysis.

Recommended Books:

  1. Quantitative Pharmaceutical Analysis (Vol I & II)- Chatten
  2. A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis– K. A. Connors
  3. Quantitative Inorganic Analysis (Vol I & II)- Vogel
  4. British Pharmacopoeia
  5. United State Pharmacopoeia

Course Code : BP- 222

Course Title : Medicinal Chemistry- I

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

1. Stereochemistry:

a) Geometric isomerism of alkenes and cyclic compounds. cis trans and (E), (Z) systems of nomenclature.

b) Conformational Isomers, conformation of open chain and cyclic compounds­

c) Chirality of molecules, enantiomer, diastereomer, racemic modification, meso compound (R) and (S) configuration, sequence rule and optical rotation.

d) Strereoselective and stereospecific reaction.

e) Pharmaceutical importance of stereochemistry study.

2.Mechanism of Organic Reactions: Baeyer-Villiger and Birch reduction. Clemmensen rcduction. Diels Alder reaction, Eschweiler-Clarke reaction, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation reaction, Gabriel synthesis Gattermann-Koch and Sandmeyer reaction, Grignard reaction. Hoffman degradation reaction, Mannich reaction, Michael and Meerwin Pondorf-Verley reduction, Oppenauer oxidation. Perkin reaction, Reformatsky reaction, Reimer-Tiemann reaction, Wittig, and Wolf-Kishner reduction.

3.Chemistry of Natural Products:

a) Alkaloids: Occurrence,isolation: Classification and properties of alkaloids, structure determination ,synthesis and physiological activities of ephedrine, nicotine, atropine and morphine.

b) Terponoids: Occurrence, isolation and classification, synthesis of geraniol, citral ionones and amyrin.

A Knowledge of chemistry (Including synthesis) and structure activity relationship of following groups of medicinal substances: Hiypnotics and sedatives, analgesics, anti-histaminics and tranquilizing agents.

Recommended Books:

  1. Textbook of Organic Chemistry- Bahl and Bahl
  2. Organic Chemistry- Morrison and Boyd
  3. Organic Chemistry (Vol I and II)- Finar
  4. Organic Chemistry- Feiser and Feiser
  5. A Textbook of Medicinal Chemistry- Wilson and Gisvold
  6. Medicinal Chemistry- Burger

Course Code : BP- 223

Course Title : Basic Pharmaceutics – II

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. History and Principle of pharmacy practice: History, code of ethics, pharmacopoeias, formularies and codexes officially recognized in Bangladesh.
  2. Micro-metrics: Importance of particle size determination, different means of expressing particles size, methods of particle size determination: optical and electron microscope studies, Coulter-counter methods, laser beam technique, sieve analysis, sedimentation methods, particle shape and surface area: measurement of particle surface area.
  3. Solubility and Dissolution rate: Methods of expressing solubility, solubility of gases in liquids, solubility of liquids in liquids, solubility of solids in solids, solubility of solids in liquids, factors affecting solubility, dissolution rate of solids in liquids.
  4. Disperse system: The colloidal state: Classification of colloids, properties of colloidal sols, Electrical double layer, Origin of the charge, stability of colloids, Viscosity of colloids, Coacervation, Dialysis, Properties of gels.

5. Pharmaceutical incompatibility

Recommended books:

  1. Dispensing for Pharmaceutical Students- Cooper & Gunn
  2. American Pharmacy- Sprowl
  3. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
  4. Dispensing of Medication- Husa & Martin.
  5. Pharmaceutical Practice-Aulton
  6. An Introduction to Pharmaceutical Formulations-Fishburn
  7. An Introduction to Pharmaceutical Productions- Polderman
  8. The Extra Pharmacopoeia- Martindale
  9. Bentey’s Texbook of Pharmaceutics
  10. Tutorial Pharmacy- Cooper & Gunn.

Course Code : BP- 224

Course Title : Pharmacology- I

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. General Pharmacology: Methods of drug administration, Half life, drug absorption, bioavailability, distribution of drugs, protein binding, accumulation and storage in body, drug dilution in the body fluid, metabolism of drugs and excretion. Drug allergy, idosynchrasy, drug toxicity and drug interaction.

Mechanism of drug action: a) Basic concept of drug action. b) Physico-chemical nature of drugs. c) Drug receptors. d) Binding forces in drug-receptor interaction e) Receptor and non receptor mechanisms of drugs. f) Macromolecular nature of drug receptors. g) Relationship between drug concentrations versus response: Concentration-effect curve and receptor binding of agonists, competitive and irreversible antagonism, partial agonists, receptor-effectors coupling and spare receptors, other mechanisms of drug antagonism.

  1. Chemotherapeutic agents: Introduction, classification, chemistry, mode of action, structure-activity relationship, pharmacokinetics, indications, contra indications. Dose, adverse effects and drug interactions of the following individual class of drugs: i) Sulfonamides, ii) Penicillins and Cephalosporins, iii) Tetracyclins, Chloramphenicol, Aminoglycosides and Macrolides, iv) Anti-fungal agents, v) Anti-tubercular drug, vi) Antileprosy drugs, vii) Miscellaneous antibacterial agents: a) Glycopeptide antibiotics, (b) Polymixin antibiotics, (c) Bacitracin, (d) Nitrofurantoin. viii) Antiviral drug including HIV.
  2. Drugs action on GIT: (Antacids): General consideration, chemistry, absorption, modification distribution and excretion. Action and adverse effects of gastric antacids. Classification of antacid-aluminium hydroxide, aluminum carbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide and oxide, magnesium carbonate, megaldrate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium bicarbonate, antacid mixtures, colloidal bismuth, H2 receptor antagonists, (cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine), proton pump inhibitor, anti emetics and anti-diarrhoeal agents, laxatives.

5. Autocoids:

a) Histamines: Mode of action, action on cardiovascular system, smooth muscle, gastric secretion, anaphylactic shock, histamine-releasing drugs, allergic disorder.

b) Antihistamines: Classification, pharmacological, therapeutic uses absorption, distributions, excretion adverse reactions etc.

c) Serotonin and serotonin antagonists: Occurrence, pharmacological action, serotonin antagonist, prostaglandins, prostacyclins and thromboxanes.

d) Prostaglandins

6.Drugs used in haemopioetic system:

(a) Anticoagulants: Heparin, warfarin, dicumarol, Na- and K-oxalates and citrates.

(b) Iron, Folic acid and vitamin B12 (Hematinics).

Recommended Books:

  1. Pharmacological Basis of Therapry- Goodman & Gillman
  2. Medical Pharmacology- Meyer
  3. Medical Pharmacology- Goth
  4. Pharmacology and Pharmcotherapeutics- R. S. Satosker

Course Code : BP- 225

Course Title : Pathology

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Scope of pathology and general concept of disease
  2. Structure of the normal cell
  3. Cellular injury and adaptation
  4. Inflammation
  5. Pathological calcification
  6. Body defense mechanisms
  7. Nutritional diseases
  8. Neoplasia
  9. Thrombosis and other disorders of circulation
  10. Infectious diseases
  11. Diseases of bones and joints
  12. Cardiovascular systems
  13. Respiratory systems
  14. Digestive systems
  15. Diseases of the blood and bone marrow

Recommended books:

  1. Pathological basis of Diseases- Robbins.

Course Code : BP- 226

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Analysis-II Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Pharmaceutical analysis of drugs using spectrophotometer, polarimeter, thin-layer chromatography, non-aqueous titration etc.
  2. Microbiological assay of vitamins and antibiotics
  3. Determination of saponification and iodine values of fixed oils

Course Code : BP- 227

Course Title : Medicinal Chemistry-II Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

Synthesis of drug & drug intermediates

a) Paracetamol

b) Benzocaine

c) Aspirin

d) Phenacetin

e) PABA (Para amino-benzoic acid )

f) Meta Nitro-benzaldehyde

g) Ethyl para hydroxy-benzoate

h) Para Amino phenol

i) Methylsalicylates.

 

Course Code : BP- 228

Course Title : Pharmacology- I Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Estimation of blood glucose by enzymatic method.
  2. Estimation of blood glucose by chemical method.
  3. Estimation of plasma protein by enzymatic method.
  4. Estimation of plasma protein by burette method.
  5. Estimation of blood uric acid level by enzymatic method.
  6. Handling of experimental animals: mice and rat.
  7. Different routes of administration of drugs in experimental animals.

 

Course Code : BP- 229

Course Title : Oral Assessment

Course Credit : 1.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

Oral assessment will be held on the basis of the courses studied during the semester.

Third Year 1st Semester

Course Code : BP- 311

Course Title : Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis- I

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Conductometry: Principle, apparatus and measurements, experimental details of conductometric titration and applications. kohlrausch’s Law.
  2. Potentiometry: Principle, methods and applications.
  3. Amperometry: Theory and technique of amperometric titration with dropping mercury electrode and applications, factor affection current flow during analysis.
  4. Polarographic analysis: Principle, component of polarogram, Ilkovic equation, diffusion current ,factors affecting diffusion current and half wave potential, quantitative analysis and applications, plarographic maxima suppressor, oxygen wave, supporting electrolyte,
  5. X-ray crystallography: X-ray and diffraction of X-ray, Bragg’s law, powder diffraction patterns, methods of measurement, analysis and application of X-ray diffraction.
  6. Bioassay: Prerequisites and development, errors in bioassay and how to overcome them. Statistical design of bioassay, method and determination of bioavailability.

Recommended Books:

  1. Quantitative Pharmaceutical Analysis (vol I & II)- Chatten
  2. A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis – K. A. Connors
  3. Quantitative Inorganic Analysis (vol I & II)- Vogel
  4. British Pharmacopoeia
  5. United State Pharmacopoeia

Course Code : BP- 312

Course Title : Medicinal Chemistry- II

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Principle of drug design: Theory, different traditional and mechanism based approaches to drug design application of quantum mechanics, computer aided drug designing (CADD), molecular modeling, congeneric series and clinical evaluation.
  2. Molecular mechanism of drug action: Signaling mechanisms and drug action: Regulation of gene expression by intracellular receptors, Ligand regulated transmembrane enzymes, ligand gated channels, G-proteins and secondary messengers, such as cyclic-AMP, calcium and phosphoinositides and cyclic-GMP interplay among signaling mechanisms.
  3. Drug metabolism: Various pathway of drug metabolism, metabolism of various group of drugs, factors affecting drug metabolism with special emphasis on aging, methods of studying drug metabolism, new aspects of drug metabolism.
4. Combinatorial chemistry :a) Combinatorial synthesis: Introduction to drug discovery process

 

b) Library synthesis on resin beads – solid phase chemistry, resin beads, speeding up of peptide synthesis, mix and split library synthesis

c) Solution phase, indexed combinatorial libraries, template-based libraries, liquid phase combinatorial synthesis,

d) Encoded combinatorial synthesis-encoded requirements. Examples of tagged libraries

e) Solid phase library, chemistry of linkers, carboxylic acid linkers, carboxamide linkers, alcohol linkers, amine linkers, traceless linkers, light cleavable linkers, selected solid phase chemistry,

f) Analysis of products with different analytical techniques used, IR, solid phase NMR

g) Combinatorial chemistry: applications and impact on drug discovery.

 

Recommended Books:

  1. Textbook of Organic Chemistry- Bahl and Bahl
  2. Organic Chemistry- Morrison and Boyd
  3. Organic Chemistry (Vol I and II)- Finar
  4. Organic Chemistry- Feiser and Feiser
  5. A Textbook of Medicinal Chemistry- Wilson and Gisvold
  6. Medicinal Chemistry- Burger

Course Code : BP- 313

Course Title : Pharmacology- II

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

1.Cardiovascular drugs:

  1. Functioning and diseases of the heart, arrythmia, ischemia, angina pectoris (Nitrites and Nitrates), thrombolytics, myocardial infarction, arteriosclerosi, lipid lowering drugs, hypertension and congestive heart failure.
  2. Introduction, classification, chemistry, mode of action, structure activity relationship, pharmacokinetics, indications, contra indications, dose, adverse effects and drug interactions of the following individual class of drugs: a) Digitalis and allied drugs b) Antihypertensive drugs: (i) a-Blockers, Prazosin, etc. (ii b-Blockers, Propanolol, etc. (iii) Methyldopa, Rauwolfia alkaloids. (iv) Ca-channel blocking agents. (v) Vasodilators.
  3. Diuretics: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, low and high ceiling diuretics, potassium sparing diuretics and osmotic diuretics.
  4. Antiarrythmic drugs: Quinidine, Procaine amide.
  5. Drugs Acting on CNS

a) Analgesic and antipyretics. (i) Non opoids (NSAID): salicilates and congeners. (ii) Opioids: natural and synthetic.

b) Hypnotic-sedatives: Benzodiazepines, barbiturates, etc.

c) C.N.S. stimulants: Amphetamine, caffeine, strychnine. xanthine derivatives.

2. Psychotropic drugs: Classification, mode of action, SAR, pharmacological actions, indications, toxicities and contraindications of chlorpromazine, benzodiazepam, TCA, MAO inhibitors, SSRIS (Fluxetin) etc.

  1. Drug acting on ANS:
  2. Local anesthetics: general properties, chemistry and SAR mechanism of action, pharmacological action, clinical use and late of cocaine, procaine, benzocaine, lidocaine, Bubuvacine, etc.
  3. General anesthetics: (i) Inhalation anasthetics: Halothene enflurane methyflurane, nitrous oxide, diethyl ether. Cyclopropane and ethylene etc. (ii) Intravenous anesthitics: Barbiturates, opoids, etc.
    1. (i) Parasympathomimetic agents: Acetyl choline, Methacoline, Carbachol. (ii) Sympath-omimetic drugs: Epinephrine, norepinephrine. (iii) Anticholinesterase agents: Physostignine, Edrophonine. Organophosphorous compounds.
    2. (i) Antimuscarinic Agents or Atropine Drugs: atropine sulfate, scopolamine hydrobromide, homatropine hydrobromide. (ii) Drugs inhibiting adrenergic nerves and structures innervated by them, Adrenergic blocking agents.
    3. Neuromuscular Blocking Agents.
  1. Anesthetics: Introduction and classification,

Recommended Books:

a. Pharmacological Basis of Therapy- Goodman & Gillman

b.Medical Pharmacology- Meyer

c.Medical Pharmacology- Goth

d.Pharmacology and Pharmcotherapeutics- R. S. Satosker

Course Code : BP- 314

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Technology- I

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Basic principles of compounding and Dispensing: Weighing, measures and units, calculation for compounding and dispensing, fundamental operation in compounding, current good pharmaceutical practices in compounding and dispensing, containers and closures for dispensed products, responding to the prescription and ailing of dispensed medications.
  2. Liquid dosage forms: Solution and elixirs, theory of solution, different factors affecting solution process, advantages and disadvantages, formulation and manufacturing considerations, packaging of liquids, preservation and stability aspects and quality control systems of liquids.
  3. Dispersed system

a) Properties of dispersed systems: Theoretical aspects of suspension, emulsion and colloids, surface characteristics and zeta potential, inter-particle force, crystal growth, wetting, adsorption at solid-liquid interface, surface and interfacial tension, flocculation and coalescence.

b) Suspension: Definition and application, advantage and disadvantages, aggregated and dispersed system, formulation, manufacturing and stability, evaluation, rheological consideration, illustrative examples.

c) Emulsion: Definitions and applications, advantage and disadvantages, theory of emulsion, formation of emulsion, classification of emulsifying agents, HLB values of surface active agents, formulation manufacturing, stability and evaluation, rheological considerations.

  1. Semisolids (ointments, paste, gels, etc.): Structure of skin, percutaneous absorption of drugs, definition and classification of semisolid, classification of ointment bases, formulation and manufacturing, rheological considerations, evaluation and quality analysis.
  2. Suppositories: Definition, advantages & disadvantages, Classification of suppositories, Suppository bases, formulation of suppositories, manufacturing of suppositories, Displacement value of testing of suppositories, Mechanism of absorption of medicaments from suppositories.
  3. Drug decomposition: Decomposition of drugs and pharmaceutical product, stabilization of pharmaceutical products.

Recommended books:

  1. Dispensing for Pharmaceutical Students- Cooper & Gunn
  2. American Pharmacy- Sprowl
  3. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
  4. Dispensing of Medication- Husa & Martin.
  5. Pharmaceutical Practice- Aulton
  6. An introduction to Pharmaceutical Formulations- Fishburn
  7. An introduction to Pharmaceutical Productions- Polderman
  8. The Extra Pharmacopoeia- Martindale
  9. Bentey’s Texbook of Pharmaceutics
  10. Tutorial Pharmacy- Cooper & Gunn.

11. Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy- Lachman

Course Code : BP- 315

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Engineering

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

1. Drying: Definition, importance of drying, terminology, theory & fundamental concepts, periods of drying, constant rate period, falling rate period, critical moisture content. equilibrium moisture content, classification: direct, indirect, radiation, dielectric, batch and continuous, dryers, types of beds: static, moving, fluidized, pneumatic bed systems, different drying equipments(construction, operation, merits, demerits): tray dryer, through-circulation dryer, pneumatic conveying dryer, rotary dryer, spray dryer, tunnel dryer, steam tube rotary dryer, agitated pan dryer, vacuum rotary dryer and freeze dryer, selection of drying equipment, preliminary dryer selection, drying tests, final selection.
2. Filtration: Definition, importance of filtration, difference with expression, sedimentation and drying. Classification of filters, theory of filtration, filter media, filter aids, filter thickeners, different filtration equipment:(construction, operation, merits and demerits) the gravity nutsche, Delpark industrial filter, bag filters, sand filters, plate and frame press, recessed plate filter press, Eimco-Burwell plates and frames, Readco short cycle filter, vertical pressure leaf filter, horizontal plate filter, industrial tubular filter, Rodney Hunt pressure filter, Moore filter, vacu-flow suction leaf filter, string discharge filter, clarifying filters, selection of filtration equipment.
3. Centrifuges: General principles, magnitude of centrifugal force, materials of construction, critical speed, sedimentation centrifuges, filtering centrifugal, centrifuge auxiliaries, drive mechanisms, feed and discharge lines, feed treatment, selection of centrifugal separators.
4. Solid-solid mixing: Importance, fundamentals, batch homogenecity, types of solids-mixing machines: (mixing mechanisms and operations) double cone, twin shell, horizontal drum, double-cone revolving around long axis, ribbon, vertical screw, batch muller, continuous muller, twin rotor. Performance, characteristics, selection of machines.
5. Paste mixing: definition, importance, simple blending, dispersion operations and general equipment design. Standard types of equipment and operations, change-can mixer, change-can mixer with planetary motion, change-can mixer with rotating turntable, troy angular mixer, duplex mixer, stationary -tank mixer, kneader, mullers, three-roll mill, selection of process and mixer.
6. Liquid mixing: Definition, importance, mixing equipment, axial and radial flow impellers, mechanisms, flow patterns, impellers, flat-blade and curved blade turbines, spiral turbines, paddles, gate impellers, anchor impellers, different fixed-mounted and portable positions, shaft lengths, baffled and unbaffled tanks, vortex formation and its control, selection of impeller.
7. Milling: Definition, application and limitations, factors affecting milling operation, mechanisms of size reduction process, methods of size reduction by cutter mill, roller mill, hammer mill, ball mill, vibration mill, edge runner mill, end runner mill, fluid energy mill, hand mill, colloid mill (principle, design, operation and advantages) and selection of a mill.

8. Air conditioning, Refrigeration & Humidity control:

a) Air conditioning: Definition, importance, pharmaceutical application, differences between air conditioner & air cooler, comfort zone, different types of air conditioners, selection of an air conditioner, design of an air conditioned room, pharmaceuticals needing air conditioning.

b) Refrigeration: Definition, pharmaceutical application, refrigerators design, mechanism of cooling, refrigerants, brine selection, pharmaceuticals needing refrigerated storage.

c) Humidity control: Terminology (psychometry, absolute humidity, relative humidity, dew point, humid heat, humid volume, wet bulb temperature and adiabatic saturation temperature), relationship between wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures, humidifier, dehumidifier, uses of psychometric charts, measurement of humidity and applications of humidity control.

9. Safety Methods in Pharmaceutical Industry: Fire protection, Handling of dangerous and toxic chemicals, Waste disposal, Animal handling.

 

Recommended books:

  1. Dispensing for pharmaceutical students- Cooper & Gunn
  2. American Pharmacy- Sprowl
  3. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
  4. Dispensing of medication- Husa & Martin.
  5. Pharmaceutical Practice-Aulton
  6. An introduction to Pharmaceutical Formulations-Fishburn
  7. An introduction to Pharmaceutical productions- Polderman
  8. The extra Pharmacopoeia- martindale
  9. Bentey’s Texbook of Pharmaceutics
  10. Tutorial Pharmacy- Cooper & Gunn.
  11. Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy- Lachman

 

Course Code : BP- 316

Course Title : Medicinal Chemistry- II Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Synthesis of organic compounds of medicinal importance
  2. Studies of drug design
  3. Extraction of metabolic enzymes from liver and their effects
  4. Exercises on drug receptor interactions

Recommended books:

  1. A Textbook of Medicinal Chemistry -Wilson and Gisvold
  2. Medicinal Chemistry -Burger
  3. Organic Chemistry (Vol. 1 & 2) -Finar
  4. Organic Chemistry -Morrison and Boyd.

Course Code : BP- 317

Course Title : Pharmacology-II Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Estimation of salicylic acid in blood after administration of aspirin tablet.
  2. Estimation of paracetamol in blood after administration
  3. Test of local anesthesia
  4. Estimation of anti-histamine in blood after administration.

Recommended books:

  1. Pharmacological basis of therapeutics- Goodman & Gillman
  2. Medical Pharmacology- Katzung
  3. Medical Pharmacology- Meryer
  4. Medical Pharmacology- A Goth
  5. Phrmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics- R.S. Satosker.

Course Code : BP- 318

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Technology-I Lab

Course Credit : 1.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Physical checking of emulsions, suspensions, syrups, ointments, suppositories etc.
  2. Formulation of emulsions, suspensions, syrups, ointments, suppositories etc.

Recommended books:

  1. The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy- Lachman
  2. American Pharmacy- Sprowl
  3. Pharmaceutics- Aulton
  4. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Scinces
  5. Dispensing of Medication- Husa & martin
  6. Pharmaceuitical Practice- Aulton
  7. An Introduction of Pharmaceutical Formulations- Fishburn
  8. An Introduction to Pharmaeutical Productions- Polderman
  9. The Extra Pharmacopoeia- Martindale

Course Code : BP- 319

Course Title : Oral Assessment

Course Credit : 1.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

Oral assessment will be held on the basis of the courses studied during the semester.

Third Year 2nd Semester

Course Code : BP- 321

Course Title : Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis- II

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Ultra violet and Infrared spectroscopy for structural analysis of organic compounds.: Introduction, electromagnetic radiation, units, electromagnetic spectra and absorption of radiation, Lambert’s and Beer’s law, deviations from Lambert-Beer law, instrumentation, chromophores and auxochromes, analysis of mixtures, absorption and intensity shifts, applications of Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy in quantitative analysis of drugs.
  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: 1H-NMR spectroscopy: introduction & theory, relaxation process, instrumentation, chemical shift, spin-spin coupling, different spin systems, coupling constants, spin-spin decoupling, long range coupling. 13C – NMR spectroscopy, basic principle and application of. 2D NMR spectroscopy.
  3. Mass spectroscopy: Introduction, theory, the mass spectrum, determination of molecular formula, ionization technique, recognition of molecular ion, fragmentation process, applications.
  4. Radiochemical methods of analysis: Fundamentals of radioactivity, natural and induced radioactivity, radioactive decay, different type of radiation, radiation detection and their measurement, principles of Geiger-Muller and Scintillation counter, radio activation and isotope dilution analysis, characterization, methodology and use of radioisotope in pharmaceutical research.

 

Recommended Books:

  1. Quantitative Pharmaceutical Analysis (Vol I & II)- Chatten
  2. A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis– K. A. Connors
  3. Quantitative Inorganic Analysis (Vol I & II)- Vogel
  4. British Pharmacopoeia
  5. United State Pharmacopoeia

Course Code : BP- 322

Course Title : Pharmacology- III

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

1. Hormones and hormone related antagonist:

i. Anti-diabetic drugs:

a) Introduction and classification of diabetes.

b) Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

c) Introduction, classification, chemistry, mode of action, structure activity relationship, pharmacokinetics, indications, contraindications, dose, adverse effects and drug interaction of the following individual class of drugs: Oral hypoglycemic agents: (i) Sulfonylureas (ii) Biguanides. Hormone preparation: insulin, Management of diabetes mellitus. (iii) Incretin Based drugs (Sitaptin).

ii. Thyroid and anti-thyroid drugs.
iii. Estrogenes and progestion.

iv. Adrenocortical steroid and their synthetic analog.

iv. Agent causing calcification and bone turnover.
2. Enzymes in therapy: General properties of enzymes and their mode of actions, activators, inhibitors and cofactors, enzymatic basis of drug action. Enzymes of pharmaceutical importance, their production, preparation, formation, use and assay methods.

3. Anticancer agents:

a) Alkylating agents: Nitrogen mustard, alkyl sulphonates and nitrosoureas.

b) Anti-metabolites: (i) Folic acid analog (ii) Pyrimidine analog (iii) Purine analog and related inhibitors.

c) Natural products: (i) Vinca alkaloids (ii) Antibiotics (iii) Miscellaneous agents (metal complexes, radioisotopes, hormones, etc.)

4.Pharmacological Studies of Various Groups of Drugs:

i. Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis: (a) Chemotherapeutics: INH, para-aminosalicylic acid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, etc. (b) Antibiotics: gentamicin, rifampicin, streptomycin, etc.
ii. Antidiarrhoeal agents: ORS, tetracycline, streptomycin, sulfonamide, loperamide and anti-spasmodic drugs, etc.
iii. Anti-fertility drugs: Oral contraceptives, mechanical barriers, implants, foams, etc.
iv. Drugs used in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
v. Drug affecting uterine motility: Oxytocin, prostaglandin, ergot alkaloid.

 

Recommended books:

  1. Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics- Goodman & Gillman
  2. Medical Pharmacology- Katzung
  3. Medical Pharmacology- Meryer
  4. Essential Pharmacology- KD Tripathey (6th edition)
  5. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology- BG Katzung (11th edition)

Course Code : BP- 323

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Technology-II

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

1.Powder dosage form:
2.Formulation & Manufacturing of tablets: Manufacturing of tablets by wet granulation, dry granulation & direct compression. Granulation of powders for tableting. Advantages and disadvantages of different processes, processes and machineries used in tablet manufacturing.
3.Common tableting problems and Evaluation of tablets: Hardness measurement, weight variation tests, thickness and diameter, friability, disintegration time, dissolution time, mechanism of tablet disintegration and dissolution. In-process quality control, study of common tableting problems.
4.Tablet coating: Definitions and classification of coating methods, advantages and disadvantages of coated tablets. Different methods of coating: Sugar coating: different stages of sugar coating, problems of sugar coating. Film coating: Theory of film coating, film formers, plasticizer, solvents. Enteric coating: Enteric coating polymers, formulations of enteric coating. Dry coating (compression coating). Comparison between sugar coating and film coating. Aqueous film coating techniques. Modern film coating materials and coating formulations. Problems of organic and aqueous film coating. Coating machines: Conventional coating machines, perforated coating machines, fluidized coating machines.
5.Hard gelatin capsules: Definition and classification, advantages and limitations of capsule dosage form, gelatin and its manufacture, manufacture of hard capsule shells, properties of capsules, formulation of capsules, capsule filling machines, tooling and accessories. Problems in capsule manufacturing, quality control methods of capsules, packaging of capsules.
6. Soft gelatin capsules: Definitions and classifications, advantages and limitations, properties, formulation, manufacturing, quality control and packaging of soft capsules. Problems and remedy of soft capsule manufacturing.

7.Microencapsulation technology: Purpose, methods of preparation, evaluation, pharmaceutical and biological applications of microencapsulation process.

Recommended books:

  1. The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy- Lachman
  2. American Pharmacy- Sprowl
  3. Pharmaceutics- Aulton
  4. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences
  5. Dispensing of Medication- Husa & martin
  6. Pharmaceutical Practice- Aulton
  7. An introduction of Pharmaceutical Formulations- Fishburn
  8. An introduction to Pharmaceutical Productions- Polderman
  9. The extra Pharmacopoeia- Martindale

Course Code : BP- 324

Course Title : Bio-pharmaceutics- I

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

1. Introduction to pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics.
2. Gastrointestinal absorption of drugs:

a) Biological Consideration: Membrane physiology, gastrointestinal physiology, mechanism of absorption etc.

b) Physicochemical Consideration: pka and gastrointestinal absorption, pH-partition theory and other physicochemical factors.

c) Dosage form consideration: Role of different dosage form like solution, suspension tablet, capsule, emulsion etc. on gastrointestinal absorption.

d) Disintegration and dissolution of drugs.

3. Distribution of drugs:

a) Important Pharmacokinetic Parameters: Biological half-life, apparent volume of distribution, area under the curve, absorption and elimination rate constant etc.

b) Interpretation of drug-plasma level curve.

c) Drug-Protein Interaction: Theoretical aspect of protein-drug interaction, methods used for protein binding, identification of drug binding sites, kinetics of protein binding, determination of bindings sites and association constant, factors affecting protein binding, effects of protein binding on drug distribution, elimination and pharmacological effects of drugs.

4. Drug clearance:

a) Theoretical aspects of drug elimination, excretion and biotransformation.

b) Renal Elimination: Glomerular filtration, active tubular secretion, tubular reabsorption. Determination of renal clearance.

c) Biotransformation of Drugs: Definition, drug biotransformation reactions, pharmacokinetics of drugs and metabolites (Michelis-Menten equation), hepatic elimination, first pass effect, liver excretion ratio, relation between absolute bio-availability and liver excretion, hepatic clearance- relationship between blood flow, intrinsic clearance and hepatic clearance, hepatic clearance of a protein bound drug (effect of protein binding on hepatic clearance).

d) Biliary excretion of drug.

5. Bio-availability and Bio-equivalence: Definitions of different parameters relative to bio-availability, purpose of bio-availability, relative and absolute to bio-availability, methods of assaying bio-availability, criteria for bio-equivalence studies.
6. Drug product selection on the basis of bio-availability testing.

Recommended books:

  1. Biopharmaceutics & Clinical Pharmacokinetics- M. Gibaldi
  2. Biopharmaceutics & Clinical Phrmacokinetics- Notari
  3. Biopharmaceutics & Relevant Pharmacokinetics- T.G. Wagner
  4. Biopharmaceutics & Drug Interactions- Cadwallader
  5. Pharmacokinetics- M. Gibaldi & D. Perrioer
  6. Biopharmaceutic- Shargel

Course Code : BP- 325

Course Title : Quality Assurance & Validation

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

1. Introduction: Importance of pharmaceutical analysis in the quality control of drugs, sources of quality variation, control of quality variation. Set up of a quality control oratory for pharmaceutical analysis, personnel, equipment, environments, etc. Types of specifications, testing program and methods.
2. In Process quality assurance method: Concept of quality assurance, selection and testing of major raw materials input. Methods of drug sampling, statistical quality control of major categories of dosage forms, QA activities, Basic concept of cGMP, ISO-9000, ISO-9001, TQM, SOP.

 
  1. 3. Quality control of raw materials, packaging materials, bulk product, finish product, weighing control, IPC. Quality review and documentation, process and quality validation of equipments validation, regulatory control, regulatory drug analysis and interpretation of analytical data.
 

4. Pharmaceutical validation concept: Validating process and equipment, advantages of validation.
5. Management of quality assurance: Quality management consideration, quality motivation, total quality management.
6. International standard organization and BSTI (DA) policies for quality in pharmaceutical industries.
7. Concept of statistical quality control: Normal frequency distribution, Q.C. charts, sampling and sampling plan, binomial distribution, tests of significance, consumer acceptance testing, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and experimental design, bio-availability and crossover design, regression correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum test.
8. Quality of packaging materials.
9. Quality of analytical methodologies, automated continuous system for assay procedure, associated activities.

Course Code : BP-326

Course Title : Pharmacology-III Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Effect of digitalis, adrenaline, noradrenaline, isoprenaline on toad’s heart
  2. Effect of CNS stirnulant, CNS depressants on toad
  3. Effect of acetylcholine on toad heart and muscle
  4. Effect of chemotherapeutic agents of diseases rats.

 

Course Code : BP- 327

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Technology-II Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

Preparation, problems encountered during preparation, physical evaluation of different dosage forms;

  1. Preparations, problems encountered during preparation, physical evaluation of the different dosage forms: (a) Tablets including coated tablets (b) Capsules (c) Suppositories (d) Pharmaceutical aerosols
  2. Capsule & Micro-encapsulation.

Course Code : BP- 328

Course Title : Bio-pharmaceutics- I Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. In vivo study of bio-availability of drug: (a) Determination of concentration of aspirin in urine after oral administration (b) Determination of paracetamol in blood after oral administration.
  2. In vitro study of bio-availability of drug: (a) Disintegration and dissolution tests of solid dosage forms (b). Determination of viscosity of a prepared emulsion.

Course Code : BP- 329

Course Title : Oral Assessment

Course Credit : 1.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

Oral assessment will be held on the basis of the courses studied during the semester.

Fourth Year 1st Semester

Course Code : BP- 411

Course Title : Advanced Medicinal Chemistry

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

1.Drug design and Discovery:

a) Sources of drugs, cost and place of development of drugs, search for new drugs, genesis of drugs.

b) Antihypertensive drugs, b-blocker, H2-blockers, semi-synthetic penicillins, quinolone derivatives and anti-diabetic drugs.

c) Role of biological half life (t½), metabolism of drug, as drug design.

2. Chemistry, uses and SAR of the following drugs:

  1. Psychotropic drugs.
  2. Antidepressant drugs and
  3. Anti-neoplastic drugs
  4. Membrane acting drugs
  5. Antimalarial drugs.

3. Biosynthetic pathway of the following natural products:

a) Alkaloids

b) Terpenoids

c) Flavonoids and

d) Vitamins

 

Recommended Books:

1) Organic Chemistry- Morrison and Boyd

2) Organic Chemistry (Vol I and II)- Finar

3) Organic Chemistry- Feiser and Feiser

4) A Textbook of Medicinal Chemistry- Wilson and Gisvold

5) Medicinal Chemistry- Burger

 

Course Code : BP- 412

Course Title : Bio-pharmaceutics II

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

1.Compartmental Analysis: Introduction:

a) One compartment open model, determination of plasma concentration from one compartment open model, calculation of apparent volume of distribution, calculation of K from urinary excretion data.

b) Multiple-Compartment models: i) Two compartment open model, method of residuals, apparent volumes of distributions, drug in tissue compartment, elimination rate constant ii) Three compartment open model: method of residuals, determination of area under curve, apparent volumes of distribution, elimination rate constant.

2.Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption: Zero order absorption model, first order absorption model determination of absorption rate constants from oral absorption data: method of residuals Wagner Nelson method, determination of ka from two comportment oral absorption data, Loo Riegelman method.
3.Multiple dosage regimens (MDR): Drug accumulation, repetitive intravenous injection, multiple oral dosage regimens, loading dose and determination of bioavailability and bio-equivalency from MDR.
4.Intravenous infusion: One compartment model drugs, two compartment model drugs, infusion plus loading dose.
5.Dosage adjustment in renal disease:

a) Pharmacokinetic considerations, general approaches for dose adjustment in renal disease, dose adjustment based on drug clearance, method based on changes in the elimination rate constant, measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GER), calculation of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine concentration. Dose adjustment based on monogram. Giusti Hayton method, Wagner method.

b) Extracorporeal removal of drugs, dialysis.

7.Non-compartmental analysis, physiologic-pharmacokinetic model, statistical moment, mean residence time etc.

8.Relationship between pharmacokinetic and therapeutic responses.

 

Recommended books:

  1. Biopharmaceutics & Clinical Pharmacokinetics- M. Gibaldi
  2. Biopharmaceutics & Clinical Pharmacokinetics- Notari
  3. Biopharmaceutics & Relevant Pharmacokinetics- T.G. Wagner
  4. Biopharmaceutics & Drug Interactions- Cadwallader
  5. Pharmacokinetics- M. Gibaldi & D. Perrioer.

 

Course Code : BP- 413

Course Title : Drug Regulatory Affairs

Course Credit : 2.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Drug abuse: Definition, Bangladesh and international status, Problem of drug abuse, Cases and remedy in drug abuse.
  2. Treatment and Rehabilitation

Pharmacy Practice in Bangladesh:

a) Scope, opportunities in the government and the armed forces

b) Drug administration and Pharmacy Council of Bangladesh, their score and functions

c) Regulations and laws governing the practices of pharmacy (The Pharmacy ordinance 1976)

d) Policies, sales, regulation and laws concerning to the manufacture, possession, distribution, sale of drugs and poisons: The Drug Policy 1982, Essential Drug List, The Drug act 1940, The Drug (control) ordinance 1982, The narcotics (Control) act 19990, The Poisons Act 1919 and related amendments

  1. Control of Drug Advertisements and prices, patented and trade marked medicine, proprietary medicine, schedules of drugs and poisons, regulation of cosmetics and poison control
  2. Professional characteristics and ethical norms, relationship of trust, ethical considerations during pharmacy practice, deficiencies of self-regulation, adherence of self-regulation.
  3. Legal Aspects: Approval process, format and registration of pharmaceuticals in Bangladesh, Drug authority of Bangladesh: Functions and activities of Directorate of Drug registration methods in Bangladesh.
  4. The Pharmacist’s code of ethics.
  5. Government health policy.

 

Recommended books:

  1. The Pharmacy Ordinance, 1976. Ministry of Law and Parliamentary Affairs, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka
  2. The Drugs (Control) Ordinance, 1982, Ministry of Law and Land Reforms Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka
  3. Drug Policy of Bangladesh, Ministry of Health and Population Control, Health Division, Dhaka
  4. A Textbook of Forensic Pharmacy- B M Mithal
  5. Pharmacist’s Code of Ethics, Pharmacy Council of Bangladesh
  6. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.

 

Course Code : BP- 414

Course Title : Molecular Biology & Biotechnology

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

Molecular Biology:

  1. General introduction and Historical background of molecular biology: The Mendelian view of the world, Mendelian law, chromosomal theory of heredity, chromosomal determination of sex, Chromosomal mapping of Annostment (Mendelian second law), and preliminary attempts to find a gene protein relationship.
  2. Nucleic acid: Structure, isolation, purification and molecular weight determination, chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and hybridization.
  3. Central dogma of molecular biology:

a) Replication: DNA replication, DNA polymerases, types of DNA replication, and inhibitors of replication.

b) Transcription: RNA synthesis and mRNA processing (post-transnational modification of mRNA, promoters, enhancers and transcriptional factor) in bacteria and yeast, inhibitors of transcription.

c) Genetic code: Characteristic feature of genetic code, Wooble hypothesis with experimental evidence, initiation and termination codon.

d) Translation: Structure of Ribosome, mechanism of translation, (protein synthesis), post-transnational modification, inhibitors of translation.

Techniques in molecular biology: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing techniques, Southern, Northern and Western blotting. agarose gel electrophoresis, sds- PAGE TR-PCR, Invitro kinase assay Real time PCR, Reverse Transcriptase.

5. Genetic engineering: Joining of DNA molecules, cohesive and blunt end joining, and addition of linker, adapters and homopolymers. Method of construction of gene bank and screening procedures of a gene bank for desired genes, cDNA library construction.
6. Cloning of a particular fragment of gene in different vector, expression in the recombinant DNA molecules.

 

Biotechnology:

1. General introduction: Definition and historical perspective, Scope, Potential and Achievements, Pharmacist and biotechnology, Biotechnology and industry; GMP compliance and Biopharmaceutical facilities, Biotechnology and Biodiversity.
2. Fermentation: General consideration: Introduction and Historical perspectives; The Fermentation process and Optimisation; Improvement of microbial strain- Mutations, Recombination, Protoplast fusion; Fermenters: Structure, size, culture vessel, agitation systems, process monitoring and control, cleaning and sterilisation; Types of fermenters (Bioreactors), fermenter designs.

 

Course Code : BP- 415

Course Title : Marketing of Pharmaceutical Products

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Introduction: Definition- Marketing concept- company orientation toward the market- Changing environment and Marketing responses, Marketing and society- Building customer satisfaction, value and retention- Ethics in marketing.
  2. Analyzing marketing opportunities: Scanning the marketing environment for pharmaceutical industry- Analyzing consumer markets and business markets of pharmaceutical products- Analyzing the pharmaceutical industry- Analyzing competitors- Marketing Information system- Measuring demand and forecasting sales – Segmenting, targeting and positioning.
  3. Managing product: Nature and types of product- product mix and line decisions- product innovation- Diffusion of innovation- Managing product life cycle- Branding, packaging and labeling of pharmaceutical items.
  4. Managing price: Setting the price- Adapting the price- Initiating and responding to price changes- Prescription pricing and Professional fees for pharmaceutical items.
  5. Managing marketing channels: Channel design decisions- Management decisions- Channel dynamics.
  6. Managing marketing communication: Designing, budgeting, managing and coordinating integrated marketing communications- Relationship in marketing of pharmaceutical products.
  7. Sales promotion: Purposes- Major decisions on sales promotion- Effective sales promotion techniques for pharmaceutical items.
  8. Public relations: Functions- Definition- Major decisions- Objectives- Public relations writing- dealing with the media- Public relationship in crisis management
  9. Organizing, Implementing and Controlling of marketing programs: Marketing Organization- Marketing implementation- Marketing control- Marketing audit.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Philip Kotler: Marketing Management
  2. Cravens D W Hills Gerald F and Woodruff R B: Marketing Management
  3. R Canfield: Salesmanship
  4. Fraser P Seitel: Public Relations

 

Course Code : BP- 416

Course Title : Bio-pharmaceutic- II Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

Evaluation of drugs and drug products (pharmacokinetics), measurement of viscosity of emulsion; quality control of sterile medicaments such as ophthalmic solution.

 

Course Code : BP- 417

Course Title : Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Lab

Course Credit : 1.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Isolation of plasmid DNA
  2. Estimation of DNA, RNA and Oligonucletides
  3. Agarose-gel electrophoresis of nucleic acid
  4. Determination of bacterial drug resistance by disk diffusion method.

Course Code : BP- 418

Course Title : Project Work and Presentation

Course Credit : 2.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

A project work will be given to the students by the teachers of the department and a dissertation should be submitted to the respective teacher and give a talk/presentation after completing the project. The report will be evaluated by the examiners of related field.

 

Course Code : BP- 419

Course Title : Oral Assessment

Course Credit : 1.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

Oral assessment will be held on the basis of the courses studied during the semester.

 

Fourth Year 2nd Semester

Course Code : BP- 421

Course Title : Hospital and Community Pharmacy

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

  1. Hospital pharmacy:

a) Introduction: Goals, minimum standards, abilities required for a hospital pharmacist. Hospital as an organization, classification, organizational patterns, management and administration, different departments and services, role of a pharmacist in the hospital. Hospital pharmacy, organizational and personnel, supportive personnel, pharmacy education, job descriptions.

b) Pharmacy and Therapeutics committee: Description and purpose, membership and functions. Hospital formulary, guiding principles, legal basis, principles for admission or deletion of drugs, selection of text.

c) Investigational use of drugs: Description, principles involved, classification, control, identification, role of hospital pharmacist, advisory committee.

d) Purchasing and Inventory control: Purchasing agent, purchasing procedure, control on purchases, storage, perishable inventory, physical inventory, perpetual inventory.

e) Control of special classes of drugs: Use of samples, in-patient drug orders, out-patient prescriptions, ward stock drugs, el symbols. Narcotics and their control, classes, procurement and execution of order forms, dispensing, hospital narcotic regulations, new systems. Floor stock drugs, selection, charge and non-charge, labeling, regulations concerning narcotics, inspection of nursing drug cabinets.

f) Dispensing to In and Out patients: Drug distribution systems, dispensing of charge, non- floor stock drugs, mobile dispensing unit, unit dose dispensing, new concepts. Dispensing to Out patients, locality of out-patient dispensing area, dispensing routine, record keeping. Dispensing during off-hours, use of nursing supervisors, emergency boxes and night drug cabinets, pharmacist-on-call. Drug charges in hospitals, pricing, break- even point pricing.

g) Manufacturing-bulk and Sterile: Control and budget, manufacturing facility and capacity, operating costs, quality control.

h) Drug information centre and Library: Physical facilities, selection of contents, methods of dissemination, role in educational and training programs, professional education, internal teaching programs, external teaching programs.

 

 

  1. Community Pharmacy:

Concept of community health care, health needs of the community, different levels of health care, elements of primary health care. Principles of primary health care: Equitable distribution, community participation, intersectoral coordination, appropriate technology, health manpower, health care delivery at different levels, community pharmacy in dealing with communicable diseases problem, nutritional problems, environmental sanitation problems and indigenous systems of medicine, development of community pharmacy infrastructure, participation of non-governmental voluntary health agencies.

 

Course Code : BP- 422

Course Title : Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology

Course Credit : 3.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

Clinical Pharmacy:

  1. Introduction: Clinic, hospital, clinical pharmacy, scope, importance and application of clinical pharmacy, diagnosis & routine tests for diagnosis, enzyme, coenzyme & isoenzyme and their role in diagnosis of disease, pharmacokinetics of few drugs.
  2. Drug abuse, drug addiction, drug habituation, drug dependence and drawbacks of self-medication.
  3. Clinical chemistry & interpretation of clinical oratory tests

a) Blood chemistry

b) Hematology

c) Urinalysis

  1. Clinical interpretation of pathophysiology of the following diseases

a) Diabetes

b) Essential hypertension,

c) Anaemia

d) AIDS

e) Tuberculosis

f) Peptic ulcer and

g) Veneral diseases: UTI, RTI, etc.

Toxicology:

1. Effects of Poisons: Poisons, toxins of animal origin, role of poison centers, adverse reactions and poisoning incidences analysis of poisoning situations, sources and assessment of poison exposure, over doses of drugs and drug interactions, symptoms and management of poisoning cases with pesticides, fumigants, solvents, vapors, food toxins and cyanides.

2. Drugs adverse effects:

a) Principles, evaluation in animals, determination of LD10, LD50, ED50, therapeutic index, etc.

b) Adverse reactions, causes of adverse reactions, factors affecting side effects of drugs.

c) Drug allergy, tests for prediction of drug allergy.

 

Course Code : BP- 423

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Technology-III

Course Credit : 3.00

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Detailed of the Course:

  1. 1. Compaction and Compression of powder: Physics of tablet compression, different stages of tablet compression, effect of compression force on tablet properties, strength of tablet, factors affecting the strength of tablet, mechanism of bonding to tablets, problems associated with large scale manufacturing of tablet.
  2. 2. Sustained release drug delivery systems: Definition, advantages and limitations of SR dosage forms, principle of SR dosage forms, classification and types of SR dosage forms, methods of obtaining SR effects of drugs, formulation and manufacturing of SR matrix tablets, release mechanism of drug, sustained action oral liquids, parenteral sustained action dosage form, dose calculation for SR dosage forms, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of sustained action dosage form.
  3. 3. Aerosol Science and Technology: Definition and classifications of aerosols, advantages and disadvantages of aerosols, propellants for aerosol manufacturing, components of aerosol formulations, systems of aerosol, container, valves and actuators for aerosols, manufacturing of aerosols, testing and quality assurance of aerosols.
  4. 4. Design and Operation of clean rooms: Source of contamination, classification of clean rooms, air flow systems conventional flow, unidirectional flow, laminar air flow units, air filtration mechanisms, fibrous filters and HEPA filters, temperature and humidity control, building design, construction and use, personnel, protective clothing, cleaning and disinfection, commissioning tests of clean and aseptic rooms, routine monitoring tests, the operation of clean and aseptic rooms, key factors in clean room operations.
  5. 5. Parenteral and Opthalmic products: Definition and classification of parenteral products, formulation considerations, vehicles and additives, containers, manufacturing consideration, environment, manufacturing techniques, raw materials and machines, quality control of parenteral products, anatomy of eye and adrena, absorption of drugs in the eye, classification of opthalmic products, formulation, vehicles and additides, manufacturing consideration, environment, manufacturing techniques, quality control of opthalmic products.

Packaging technology: Purpose of packaging, properties of packaging materials, factors influencing choice of package, advantages and disadvantages of different packaging materials, glass and glass containers, metal and metal containers, plastic and plastic containers, films foils and laminates, rubber based materials, closures, tamper resistant packaging, testing and quality assurance of packaging materials, different packaging machines and accessories, organization of packaging line and labeling.

 

Recommended books:

  1. Theory and practice of Industrial Pharmacy- Lachmann
  2. American Pharmacy- Sprowl
  3. Pharmaceutics- Aulton
  4. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences
  5. Dispensing for Pharmaceutical Students- Cooper & Gunn
  6. Dispensing of medication- Husa & Martin
  7. Bentley’s Textbook of Pharmaceutics
  8. Tutorial Pharmacy- Cooper & Gunn
  9. An introduction to Pharmaceutical Formulations- Fishburn.

 

Course Code : BP- 424

Course Title : Cosmetology

Course Credit : 3.00

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Detailed of the Course:

Cosmetology:

a) The skin: Introduction, epidermis and keratinizing system, pigmentary system, langerhans cell, dermis, nerves and sense organs, blood vessels, exocrine sweat glands, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, common disorders of the skin.

b) Skin creams: Introduction, classification of skin creams, cold cream, vanishing creams, emollient cream and lotion.

c) Shaving preparations: Introduction, lather shaving cream, brushes less or non-lathering cream, aerosol shaving foams, after shave preparations.

d) Dental products: Introduction, formulation and manufacture of toothpastes, tooth powder and mouthwash.

e) Hair products: Introduction, shampoos, hair setting lotions, hair tonic and conditioners etc.

f) Brief study on deodorant: Talcum powder, perfume, etc.

g) Lip-products, etc.

 

Recommended books:

  1. 1. Cosmetics Science and Technology (Vol. 1 & II) by M S balsam 7 E. Sagarin
  2. 2. Preparation and Distribution of Drugs & Cosmetics by S. N Saha

 

Course Code : BP- 425

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Management

Course Credit : 3.00

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Detailed of the Course:

1. Introduction: Concepts of supply chain- Tasks of supply chain– Strategic role of supply chain– Challenges facing supply chain managers.

2. Materials management: Formulating buying policies– Determining needs of materials – Sourcing materials- Receiving and Stocking materials- Mnanagement of supply bases- Value chain analysis and alliance network development.

3. Inventory management: Production planning– Managing the flow of materials to production – Cost of inventory- Methods of inventory control- Selection of optimum method- Effect of inventory control- Economic order quantity- Just in time- Optimization production technology.

  1. Distribution: Components of distribution organization- Establishing distribution netweok- measuring the effectiveness of distribution network– Management of community pharmacy and Governmental pharmacy.
  2. Developing cost effective transportation: Transport mode selection- Private Vs. hired transport- Evaluating alternative career performance- Designing optimum transportation system.
  3. Managing sales force: Recruiting, Training, Motivating and Evaluating sales force – Sales lanning: Organizing sales- Assigning sales territory- Sales analysis.
  4. Customer service: Order cycle- Financial consideration- Technical and logistical support.
  5. Entrepreneurship: Definition- Evolution of entrepreneurship- Role in the economic development- Qualities of entrepreneurs- Entrepreneurial education and Career in Pharmaceutical Industry- Social and Ethical responsibilities of entrepreneurs.
  6. The entrepreneurial process: Decision making- Factors affecting entrepreneurial growth in Pharmaceutical industry- Legal issues related to entrepreneurship in Pharmaceutical Industry.
  7. Entrepreneurial motivation: Entrepreneurial feelings- Motivation and Role model support system for entrepreneurship development in Pharmaceutical Industry.
  8. Business idea development planning: Creativity and Business idea- Sourcing and Generating idea- Creative problem solving techniques- Refining business idea- New product planning & Development process.Venture opportunity scanning in the Pharmaceutical industry- Marketing plan- Financial plan- Organizational- Operation plan.
  9. Managing human resource: Scope– Importance– Recruiting– Training– Motivating– Industrial relations.

 

Recommended Books:

  1. Handfield R Robert: Introduction to Supply Chain Management
  2. Philip B Schary: Managing the Global Supply Chain
  1. Douglas M Lambert: Strategic Physical Distribution Management
  1. Bowersox: Phyusical Distrribution
  2. H R Tesdal: Introduction to Sales Management
  3. Hisrich, Robert D & Peters Michael P: Entrepreneurship Development
  4. Khanka S S: Entrepreneurship Development

 

Course Code : BP- 426

Course Title : Pharmaceutical Technology- III Lab

Course Credit : 1.0

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Detailed of the Course:

  1. Preparation of water for injection, preparation of injection of (a) procaine and adrenaline (b) procaine benzylpenicillin with benzylpenicillin;
  1. Studies on the of formulation and problems on opthalmic preparations and sustained releases products

 

Course Code : BP- 427

Course Title : Cosmetology Lab

Course Credit : 1.00

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Detailed of the Course:

Preparations of different types of cosmetic products such as skin products (cold cream, vanishing cream and lotions), Saving preparations (lether saving cream and after save preparation), Hair products (shampoos) and their stability testing

Course Code : BP- 428

Course Title : In-plant Training

Course Credit : 2.00

……………………………………………………………………………………

Detailed of the Course:

At the end of fourth year, the students will undergo in-plant training program for 4 weeks in Pharmaceutical Industries. After completion of the training program successfully the students will have to submit a report to the department and the report will be evaluated by the examiners of related field. In addition the students will have to present a short seminar.

Course Code : BP- 429

Course Title : Oral Assessment

Course Credit : 1.00

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Detailed of the Course:

Oral assessment will be held on the basis of the courses studied during the semester.

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