The Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Varendra University (VU) will be offering four-year undergraduate degree program in Electrical and Electronic Engineering. The bachelor degree program requires 151 credits and is spread over 12 semesters with 3 semesters per year.
The aim of the degree program is to keep the students well equipped with the theoretical and practical knowledge of the particular branch. The Electrical and Electronic Engineering program is designed to produce graduates who will find themselves fit to practice electrical engineering in the following areas: Communications, Control Systems, Power Electronics and Power systems; define and diagnose problems, provide and implement electrical engineering solutions in the industry, business and government; observe engineering ethics in the practice of electrical engineering; communicate effectively with technically diverse audiences; collaborate with others as a member or as a leader in an engineering team; develop their knowledge and keep abreast of the advancements in electrical, electronic and telecommunication engineering.
The department has already developed its own laboratories in Electrical Circuits, Analog and Digital Electronics, The department will be developing, in due course, the laboratories in Power systems, Microwaves and Microprocessors, Electrical Machines, Switchgear and Protection, Communication Engineering and Control Systems.
The procedure of Credit Hour Semester System which will be practiced in the academic program at the Varendra University involves 13 weeks of class room instructions in each semester. For all 3 credit theory and 1.50 credit Lab courses, contact hour is 3 period/week. Each class period of theory/Lab courses will have a minimum duration of 50 minutes.
An academic year comprises three semesters, each semester spanning 4 months: 13 weeks for instruction and 3 weeks for registration and examinations. Semester starts at January (Spring Semester), May (Summer Semester) and September (Fall Semester).
The courses of the undergraduate curricula are divided into several groups:
The course in which a student obtains ‘D’ or higher grade will be counted as credit earned by the student. ‘F’ grade is not counted towards a student’s earned credits. A student who obtains an ‘F’ grade in any core course has to repeat the course. If a student obtains an ‘F’ grade in an optional course, he/she may choose to repeat the course or take a substitute course if available. ‘F’ grade is not counted for GPA calculations but will show on the Grade Sheet and Transcript. Students can appear in the supplementary examination to improve their grades. However, a student is permitted to appear in supplementary examinations not more than twice for a course and his/her credit is determined by averaging the marks obtained in the supplementary and original examination.
Evaluation of students’ performance will be based on final examination, midterm examination, class-test/assignments and attendance. Classroom evaluation including attendance, class tests and assignments will cover 25% of the total marks and the remaining 75% are reserved for the midterm and final examinations. For Lab courses evaluation will be based on attendance, Lab assessment, Lab report, Quiz and Viva. The distribution of marks is as follows:
Theory course:
Attendance 5%
Class test 10%
Assignment+Presentation 10%
Midterm Examination 25%
Final Examination 50%
Lab course:
Attendance 10%
Lab Assessment 20%
Report 20%
Quiz/Project 30%
Viva 20%
Numerical Grade | Letter Grade | Grade Point |
---|---|---|
80 % and above |
A+ (A Plus) |
4.00 |
75% to less than 80 % |
A (A Regular) |
3.75 |
70 % to less than 75% |
A- (A Minus) |
3.50 |
65% to less than 70% |
B+ (B Plus) |
3.25 |
60% to less than 65% |
B (B Regular) |
3.00 |
55% to less than 60% |
B- (B Minus) |
2.75 |
50% to less than 55% |
C+ (C Plus) |
2.50 |
45% to less than 50% |
C (C Regular) |
2.25 |
40% to less than 45% |
D |
2.00 |
Less than 40% |
F |
0.00 |
Continuation for Thesis/Project |
X |
— |
Note: If Letter Grade ‘I’ (Incomplete) is awarded to any student in any course, it will indicate that he/she has attended the course but did not appear in the semester midterm/final examination. Letter Grade ‘W’ indicates withdrawn from the course.
Student’s performance will be evaluated on the basis of Grade Point Average (GPA) semester wise and Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of total completed courses.
The CGPA will be computed in the following manner:
CGPA = ∑Grade points X Credits/∑Credits
The minimum qualifications for admission into the undergraduate program are:
At least second division in both SSC and HSC (No third division is acceptable) or Minimum 2.5 GPA out of 5.00 in both S.S.C. and H.S.C. Student should be from Science background with Math and Physics.
O-Level and A-Level:
Five subjects in University of London GCE O-level and three major subjects (Math, Physics and Chemistry) in A-level are required. Minimum average GPA of combined O-level and A-level is 3 (Grade C), according to the VU scale: A=5, B=4, C=3, D=2 & E=l
The degree requirements of Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering are:
The degree requirements of Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering are:
Total Credits: 13 (Theory: 13, Lab: 0)
Total Credits: 4.50 (Theory: 3, Lab: 1.5)
Mathematics: (Have to take all the courses)
No. of Courses: 5 (Theory: 5, Lab: 0)
Total Credits: 15 (Theory: 15, Lab: 0)
Total Credits: 91.5 (Theory: 63, Lab: 28.5)
Total Credits: 10.50 (Theory: 9, Lab: 1.50)
Total Credits: 10.50 (Theory: 6, Lab: 4.50)
All students will be required to undertake supervised study and research culminating in a dissertation in their field of specialization. The completed dissertation should be bound and printed in accordance with the regulation of the University.
Total Credits: 151 (Theory: 109, Lab: 42 including Thesis/Project)
Ratio between Theory and Lab: 2.60:1
Percentage of Lab Credits with Theory Credits: 38.53 %
Percentage of Lab Credits with Total Credits: 27.81 %
ENG – 111 General English 2.00
General discussion: Introduction, various approaches to learning English.
Grammatical Problems: Construction of sentences, grammatical errors, sentence variety and style, conditionals, vocabulary and diction.
Reading Skill: Discussion readability, scan and skin reading, generating ideas through purposive reading, reading of selected stories.
Writing Skill: Principles of effective writing; Organization, planning and development of writing; Composition, précis writing, amplification.
Listening Skill: The phonemic systems and correct English pronunciation.
Speaking Skill: Practicing dialogue; Story telling; Effective oral presentation.
ENG – 121 Technical English 2.00
Classification of reports, structure of a report, writing of technical report, commercial correspondence and tender notice, standard forms of term papers, thesis, etc. layout of business correspondence, voluntary offers and inquiries, responding to inquiries, estimates and quotations, orders, acknowledgement and acceptance of orders, fulfillment of orders, complains and their adjustment, memorandum, qualities of effective correspondence, visual communication, public speaking, and oral presentation.
HUM – 211 Economics and Accountancy
Economics: Definition, scope and methods. Demand, supply and their elasticity’s; equilibrium analysis-partial and general; Consumer behavior, marginal utility; indifference curve, consumer’s surplus; producer behavior; iso-quant, iso-cost line. Factors of production function; production possibility curve; fixed cost and variable cost; short run and long run costs, total, average and marginal cost; laws of returns; internal and external economics and diseconomies; market and market forms; perfect and imperfect competition; price output determinations. Introductory ideas on GNP, GDP, perceptual income, interest, rent, saving, investment, inflation; Project approval, NPV, IRR & their application, cost benefit analysis.
BCH – 231 Bangladesh Cultural & Heritage Studies
Bangladesh: Geography, brief history, socio-economic perspective, cultural tradition including development of language, different ethnic and religious groups, occasions and festivals, notable personalities of art and literature, Bangladesh political system and governance, ministries, local governance, civil and administrative structure.
Environment and Health: State of environment (Bangladesh), Arsenic crisis, Global warming and climate change, Pollutions, Prevalent diseases.
Overview of the world: brief introduction with selected countries, Economic zones, and International affairs – contemporary issues.
HUM – 311 Industrial Management
Management Functions and Organization: Evolution, management function: organization, theory and structure, span of control, authority delegation, manpower planning.
Personal Management: Importance, need hierarchy, motivation, leadership, wage incentives, performance appraisal, and participative management.
Operation Management: Production planning and control (PPC) functions, quantitative methods applied in production, quality management, location and layout planning safety and loss management.
Cost and Financial Management: Elements of cost products, cost analysis, investment analysis, and benefit cost analysis, risk analysis.
2. Basic Science:
PHY – 111 Physics
Waves and oscillations: Differential equation of simple harmonic oscillator, total energy and average energy, combination of simple harmonic oscillations, spring mass system, torsional pendulum; two body oscillation, reduced mass, damped oscillation, forced oscillation, resonance, progressive wave, power and intensity of wave, stationary wave, group and phase velocities.
Optics: Defects of images: spherical aberration, astigmatism, coma, distortion, curvature, chromatic aberration. Theories of light; Interference of light: Young’s double slit experiment, displacement of fringes and its uses, Fresnel bi-prism, interference in thin films, Newton’s rings, interferometers; Diffraction: Diffraction by single slit, diffraction from a circular aperture, resolving power of optical instruments, diffraction at double slit and N-slits, diffraction grating; polarization: Production and analysis of polarized light, Brewster’s law, Malus law, polarization by double refraction, Nicol prism, optical activity, Polarimeters.
Electricity and Magnetism: Electric charge and Coulomb’s law, Electric field, concept of electric flux and the Gauss’s law- some applications of Gauss’s law, Gauss’s law in vector form, Electric potential, relation between electric field and electric potential, capacitance and dielectrics, gradient, Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations, Current, Current density, resistivity, the magnetic field, Ampere’s law, Biot-Savart law and their applications, Laws of electromagnetic induction- Maxwell’s equation.
PHY – 112 Physics Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in PHY – 111.
3. Mathematics:
MAT – 111 Differential and Integral Calculus
Differential Calculus: Differentiability, differentiation and its geometrical representation. Successive differentiation of various types of function. Leibnitz’s theorem, Role’s, Mean value theorem, Taylor’s and Maclaurin’s theorem in finite and infinite forms. Divergency and Convergency of series. Functions of several independent variables, partial differentiation, Euler’s theorem, Jacobian. Tangent, Normal and Curvature. Determination of maximum and minimum values of function and point of inflection.
Integral Calculus: Definition and properties of integration. Integration by the method of substitution, Integration by parts, standard integrals, Integration by the method of successive reduction. Definite integrals, its properties and use in summing series. Walli’s formulae,. Improper integrals. Beta function and Gamma function. Area under a plane curve and area of a region enclosed by two curves in Cartesian and polar co-ordinates. Volumes and surface areas of solids of revolution.
MAT – 121 Coordinate Geometry & Vector Analysis
Co-ordinate Geometry: 2-Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry, Change of axes, Transformation of co-ordinates. Pair of straight lines, Circle, System of circles. General equation of second degree. 3-Dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry, System of co-ordinates, Distance of two points. Section formula, Projection, Direction cosines. Equations of planes and lines.
Vector Analysis: Scalars and Vectors, equality of vectors, Addition and subtraction of vectors, Multiplication of vectors by scalars. Scalar and vector products of two vectors. Differentiation and integration of vectors, line, surface and volume integrals. Gradient of a scalar function, divergence and curl of a vector function. Physical interpretation of gradient, divergence and curl. Conservative systems. Gauss’s divergence theorem, Stoke’s theorem and Green’s theorem and their application in Engineering problems.
MAT – 131 Differential Equations and Matrices
Ordinary Differential Equation: Definition, Degree and order of differential equation. Formation of differential equations, Solution of first order differential equations by various methods, Solution of differential equation of first order and higher degrees. Solution of general linear equations of second and higher orders with constant co-efficient, Solution of Euler’s homogeneous linear equations, Solution of differential equations in series by the method of Frobenius. Bessel’s functions, Legendre’s Polynomials and their properties.
Partial Differential Equation: Elimination of arbitrary constant and arbitrary function. One dimensional wave equation, two dimensional wave equation, steady state heat flow equation, solution of differential equation by the method based on the factorization of the operator and with initial and boundary conditions.
Matrices: Matrix algebra, Elementary transformation, Inverse by elementary transformation, Rank, Linear dependence and independence of vectors and matrices, Solution of linear equation using matrix, Vector spaces. Linear transformation, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, Cayley-Hamilton theorem.
MAT – 211 Fourier and Laplace Analysis
Fourier analysis: Fourier series, Fourier coefficients, even and odd functions, properties of Fourier series, Convergence of Fourier series, extension of internal Fourier series, Fourier integral, sine and cosine integrals, finite Fourier transformation, series, infinite Fourier transformation, use of Fourier transformation in boundary value problems.
Laplace transform: Laplace transforms of elementary functions, properties of Laplace transform, inverse Laplace transform and its properties, convolution theorem, application of Laplace transform to solve differential equations related linear circuit and partial deferential equations.
MAT – 221 Complex Variables and Statistical Analysis
Complex Variable: Complex number system, General functions of a complex variable, Limits and continuity of a function of complex variable and related theorem, Complex differentiation and the Cauchy-Riemann equations, Complex integration and Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formulae and related theorems, Infinite series, Tajlor’s and Laurent series, Residue, The residue theorem, Contour integration.
Statistical Analysis: Frequency distribution Mean, Median, Mode and other measure of central tendency. Standard deviation and other measures of dispersion, Moments, Skewness and Kurtosis. Elementary probability theory and discontinuous probability distributions, e.g. binomial, Poisson and negative binomials, Continuous probability distributions, Elementary Sampling theory, Estimation, Hypothesis testing, Correlation & Regression analysis.
4. EEE Core Courses:
EEE – 111 Electrical Circuits I
Fundamental concepts and units, Variables and parameters: Voltage, current, power, energy, independent and dependent sources, resistance.
Basic laws: Ohm’s law, Kirchhoff’s current and voltage laws, Joule’s law.
Simple resistive circuits: Series and parallel circuits, voltage and current division, Wye-Delta transformation.
Techniques of circuit analysis: Nodal and mesh analysis including supernode and supermesh. Network theorems: Source transformation, Thevenin’s, Norton’s and superposition theorems with applications in circuits having independent and dependent sources, Millman’s theorem, Compensation theorem, Maximum power transfer theorem and Reciprocity theorem.
Source Concept: Sources of E.M.F, primary and secondary cells. Energy storage elements: Inductors and capacitors, series & parallel combination of inductors and capacitors.
Magnetic quantities and variables: Flux, permeability and reluctance, magnetic field strength, magnetic potential, flux density, magnetization curve. Laws of magnetic circuits: Ohm’s law and Ampere’s circuital law. Magnetic circuits: series, parallel and series-parallel circuits.
Introduction to measuring instruments: Ammeter, voltmeter, galvanometer and wattmeter.
EEE – 112 Electrical Circuits I Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 111.
EEE – 121 Electrical Circuits II
Sinusoidal functions: Instantaneous current, voltage, power, effective current and voltage, average power, phasors and complex quantities, impedance, real and reactive power, power factor.
Analysis of single phase AC circuits: Series and parallel RL, RC and RLC circuits, nodal and mesh analysis, application of network theorems in AC circuits, circuits with non-sinusoidal excitations, transients in AC circuits, passive filters.
Resonance in AC circuits: Series and parallel resonance. Q-value and Bandwidth.
Magnetically coupled circuits.
Analysis of three phase circuits: Three phase supply, balanced and unbalanced circuits, power calculation.
EEE – 122 Electrical Circuits II Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 121.
EEE – 123 Electronics I
Introduction to Semiconductor: History of vacuum tube and modern electronics, Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors, N and P type semiconductors; Mobility; Drift Velocity, Energy bands.
Semiconductor Diode: PN junction diodes and their I-V characteristics; Zener diode; Tunnel diode; Varactor diode; Photodiode and LDR; Transition & Diffusion capacitance.
Diode Circuits: Ideal rectifier concept; Half wave and Full wave rectifiers; Filters; Voltage regulators; Voltage doubler; Clippers and Clampers.
Bipolar Junction Transistors: PNP and NPN type, Transistor V-I characteristics, CE, CB, and CC configurations, Transistor action, Transistor as an amplifier, Operating point, Load line.
FET & MOSFET: Construction and classification, Principle of operation, Characteristic curves, Channel conductivity, Parameters of the FET, Effect of temperature on FET, Common source amplifier, Common drain amplifier, MOSFET.
Amplifier Fundamentals: current gain, voltage gain, power gain, input impedance, output impedance, and classification of amplifiers, Distortion in amplifiers.
EEE – 124 Electronics I Lab
The goal of this course is to provide the students with the basic understanding of semiconductor devices (Diode, Transistor etc.) and to study their input, output characteristics. Also construction of practical rectifier circuits and amplifiers will be studied.
EEE – 131 Electronics II
Course outline:
Low-Frequency Response of Transistor Amplifiers: Effect of emitter bypass capacitor; Effect of coupling capacitor; Cascading of CE stage; Mid-frequency gain; low-frequency response of cascaded stages; Transformer coupled amplifier
High-Frequency Response of Transistor Amplifiers: High frequency model for CE amplifier, CE short circuit current gain, High frequency current gain with resistive load, High frequency response of cascaded CE stages, Transformer coupled amplifier, Transistor noises.
Feedback: Concept of feedback: Negative feedback, Positive feedback, Voltage feedback, Current feedback, Effect of feedback on impedance, Gain, Bandwidth, Distortion & Stabilization.
Operational Amplifier: Difference amplifier, CMMR, Ideal operational amplifier, Inverting amplifier, Non-inverting amplifier, General purpose IC operational amplifier, Integrator, Differentiator, Linear and non-linear applications of operational amplifier, Comparator and Converter.
Oscillators: Positive feedback, Condition of oscillation, RC phase shift oscillator, Wein bridge oscillator, Resonant circuit oscillators, Crystal oscillator and Waveform generators.
Power Amplifiers: Classification of power amplifiers, Collector efficiency, Transformer coupled class A amplifier; Class-B push-pull amplifier, Class-C amplifier, Tuned amplifier, class D, E & S amplifier.
EEE – 132 Electronic Circuits II Lab
Course Outline:
To study the frequency response of a transistor amplifier; To study the effects of feedback on Gain and Bandwidth of a CE amplifier; To study the characteristics of a class-B push-pull amplifier; To study the characteristics of a class-C power amplifier; To study the characteristics of an operational amplifier; To use an operational amplifier for various mathematical operations; To study a comparator using IC – 741 operational amplifier; To study an RC phase shift oscillator; To study a Wein Bridge oscillator; To study the characteristics of a JFET.To study the switching characteristics of a MOSFET.
EEE – 213 Electrical Machines I
D.C. Generator: Principles, Construction, Classification, Armature windings, Voltage build up, Armature reactions and Commutation, Performance and testing, Compounding of d.c. generator, Generator characteristics, Voltage regulation, Losses and efficiency, Parallel operation.
D.C. Motor: Operation, Types, Back e.m.f, Torque equations, Motor characteristics, Speed-Torque Characteristics, Speed regulation, Losses and efficiency, Methods of speed control, Methods of braking, Starters, Amplidyne and Metadyne.
Single Phase Transformer: Principles, Types, Equivalent circuits, Performance and testing, Regulation, Losses and efficiency, Parallel operation, Auto-transformer, Instrument transformers.
Poly Phase Transformer: Poly phase transformer construction, Poly phase transformer connections, Harmonics in polyphase transformer, transformer cooling.
Single Phase Induction Motor: Principle, Construction and types, Performance, Double revolving field theory, Cross field theory, Equivalent circuits.
EEE – 214 Electrical Machines I Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 213.
EEE – 216 Circuit Simulation Lab
Simulation laboratory based on EEE – 111, EEE – 121 and EEE – 123 theory courses. Students will verify the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 111, EEE – 121 and EEE – 123 using simulation softwares like PSpice, Electronic Workbench, Multisim and Matlab. Students will also perform specific design of electronic circuits theoretically and by simulation.
EEE – 221 Electrical Machines II
Course Outlines:
Polyphases Induction Motor: Principle of operation, Constructional details, Classifications, Equivalent circuits, Starting torque and maximum torque, Speed-torque relations, Losses and efficiency, Circle diagram, Starters, Methods of speed control, Methods of braking and plugging, Induction generator.
Synchronous Motor: Principle of operation, stsrting, effect of loading under different excitation, effect of changing excitation, synchronous condenser, V-curve and inverted V curve, applications.
Alternators: basic principle of operation and operational characteristics, vector diagrams at different loads, synchronous impedance, and synchronous impedance methods of predicting voltage regulation and its limitation.Parallel operation of alternators: necessary condition, synchronizing, circulating current.
Special Machines: Universal motor, Repulsion motor, Reluctance motor, Electrostatic motor, Permanent magnet motor, Hysteresis motor, Stepper motor and Power modulators, Power rectifiers and Frequency multipliers.
Generalized Energy Conversion Process: General principles of electromechanical energy conversion, Energy storage, transformation and conversion, Methods of formulation of motion equations and coordinate information, Interpretation of generalized machines from field concepts.
EEE – 222 Electrical Machines II Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 221.
EEE – 223 Numerical Methods for Engineering
Introduction: Motivation and errors in numerical techniques, Taylor series.
Finite Difference Calculus: Forward, backward, divided and central difference and difference of a polynomial.
Interpolation and Extrapolation: Newton’s formula, Lagrange, spline, chebyshev and inverse; extrapolation.
Nonlinear Equations: Iteration, bisection, false position, Raphson, Secant and Muller’s methods.
Simultaneous Linear Algebric Equations: Cramer’s rule, inversion if matrices, Gauss elimination, Gauss-Jordom method, factorization and Gauss-Seidal iteration methods.
Curve fitting: linear and polunomial regression, fitting power, exponential and trigonometric functions, ordinary differential equations: initial value problem, Taylor’s series method, Picard’s method of successive approximation, Euler’s method and Runge Kutta method. Boundary value problems.
Numerical integration: General quardrature formula, trapezoidal rule and simpson’s rule; numerical differentiation.
EEE – 224 Numerical Methods for Engineering lab
Laboratory experiments based on theory and concept learnt in EEE- 223.
EEE – 233 Digital Electronics
Number systems: Representation of numbers in different bases, addition and subtraction in different bases, Complement: Subtraction using complements, binary multiplication & division.
Binary codes: Different coding system, Boolean algebra, various gates, sum of products and product of sums, standard and canonical forms and other logical operations.
Simplification of Boolean functions: Karnaugh map method, tabular method of simplification; Implementation of logic circuit using various gates, universal gates.
Combinational logic circuit: Design procedure: Adder, subtractor, code converters, parity bit checker and magnitude comparator, analysis of different combinational circuits, encoder, decoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, ROM, PLA and their applications.
Flip-flops: SR, JK, Master slave, T and D type flip-flops and their characteristic tables & equations; triggering of flip-flops; flip-flop, excitation table.
Sequential circuits: Introduction to sequential circuits, analysis and synthesis of synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits.
Counters: Classifications, Synchronous and asynchronous counter design and analysis, ring counter, Johnson counters, ripple counter and counter with parallel load.
Registers: Classification, shift registers, circular registers and their applications and registers with parallel load.
EEE – 234 Digital Electronics Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 233.
EEE – 311 Signals and Systems
Classification of signals and systems: signals- classification, basic operation on signals, elementary signals, representation of signals using impulse function; systems- classification. Properties of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems: Linearity, causality, time invariance, memory, stability, invertibility.
Time domain analysis of LTI systems: Differential equations- system representation, order of the system, solution techniques, zero state and zero input response, system properties; impulse response- convolution integral, determination of system properties; state variable- basic concept, state equation and time domain solution.
Frequency domain analysis of LTI systems: Fourier series- properties, harmonic representation, system response, frequency response of LTI systems; Fourier transformation- properties, system transfer function, system response and distortion-less systems. Analogous systems: f-v and f-i analogy, Electro-mechanical systems. Applications of time and frequency domain analyses: solution of analog electrical and mechanical systems, amplitude modulation and demodulation, time-division and frequency-division multiplexing.
Laplace transformation: Fourier to Laplace, Properties, inverse transform, solution of system equations, system transfer function, system stability and frequency response and application, Convolution integral and its application, Superposition integral.
EEE – 313 Electrical & Electronic Measurement
Measurement of resistance, inductance and capacitance, balancing procedure for A.C bridges, cable faults and localization of cable faults, magnetic measurement, ballistic galvanometers, flux meter, separation of iron losses, high voltage measurement.
Measuring instruments: Classification, operating principle of ammeters, voltmeters, wattmeter and watt-hour meters.
Introduction to instrumentation Error: Classification of error, normal law of error, guarantee of error.
Transducer: Resistive, strain gauges, thermal, magnetic, LVDT, capacitive, piezoelectric, optical, current and potential transformers.
Electronic measuring instruments: Oscilloscope, DMM, VTVM, TVM.
Computer based instrumentation: PC-based data acquisition, filtering by moving average, Instrumentation for process control, data conditioning.
Mechanical measurement: Measurement of speed, frequency, pressure, temperature, flow force, weight level detector, shaft encoder.
EEE – 314 Electrical & Electronic Measurement Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 313.
EEE – 316 Electrical Services Design Lab
Wiring system design, drafting, estimation. Design for illumination and lighting. Electrical installations system design: substation, BBT and protection, air-conditioning, heating and lifts. Design for intercom, public address systems, telephone system and LAN. Design of security systems including CCTV, fire alarm, smoke detector, burglar alarm, and sprinkler system. A design problem on a multi-storied building.
EEE – 321 Transmission & Distribution of Electrical Power
Inductance of Transmission Lines: Flux linkages, Inductance due to internal flux, Inductance of single phase two‑wire line; Flux linkage of one conductor in a group, Inductance of composite conductor lines, G.M.D. Examples, 3-phase line with equilateral and with unsymmetrical spacing, Parallel circuit 3-phase lines.
Capacitance of Transmission Lines: Electric field, Potential difference between points due to a charge, Capacitance of a two‑wire line, Group of charged conductors. Capacitance of 3-phase line with equilateral and with unsymmetrical spacing, Effect of earth, Parallel circuits lines.
Resistance and Skin Effects: Resistance and temperature, Skin effects influence on resistance.
Current and voltage relation on a transmission line: Representation of line‑ short, medium and long transmission lines; T and p representation, Exact solution, Equivalent circuit of a long line; Generalized Line Constants; General line equation in terms of ABCD constants, Relation between constants, Charts of line constants, Constants of combined networks, Measurements of line constants.
Circle Diagrams: Receiving and sending end power circle diagrams, Power transmitted, Maximum power, Universal power circle diagrams. Voltage and power factor control in transmission systems; Tap changing transformers, On‑load tap changing; Induction regulators, Moving coil regulators, Boosting transformer; Power factor control: Static condenser in series or parallel, Synchronous condensers, Ferranti effect.
Mechanical Characteristics: Transmission line Sag and Stress analysis, Wind and Ice loading, Supports at different elevations, Conditions at erection; Effect of temperature changes.
Insulator for Overhead Lines: Types of insulators and their constructions and performance, Potential distribution in a string of insulators, String efficiency, Methods of equalizing potential distribution, Special types of insulators, Testing of insulators, Corona.
Insulated Cables: Cables versus overhead lines, Insulating materials, Electrostatic stress grading, Three‑core cables, Dielectric losses and heating, Modern development on oil filled and gas filled cables; Measurement of capacitances, Cable testing.
Distribution system: Radial, Ring mains and interconnections.
EEE – 323 Power Electronics
Power semiconductor switches and triggering devices: Power transistors, Fast recovery diodes, Thyristors, Power TRIAC, MOSFET, IGBT, GTO, UJT and DIAC-characteristics, rating, protection circuits, driver Circuits. Rectifiers: Uncontrolled and controlled single phase and three phase. Regulated power supplies: Linear-series and shunt, switching buck, buckboost, boost and Cuk regulators. AC voltage controllers: single and three phase. Choppers: Type A, B, C and D choppers, Pulse width modulation – Gating requirements. DC motor control: DC motor drives, Induction and Synchronous motor drives, Stepper motor control, Switched reluctance and brushless motor drives. Single phase cycloconverter. Inverters: Voltage and current source inverters, resonant, series inverter, PWM inverter. AC motor control. Stepper motor control. Resonance inverters. Pulse width modulation control of static converters. Introduction to resistance welding, saturable reactors and magnetic amplifiers, dielectric heating, induction heating.
EEE – 324 Power Electronics Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 323.
EEE – 325 Digital Signal Processing
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing (DSP): Digital signals and systems: Operations in digital signal processing, the scope of DSP, analog to digital conversion, frequency Domain Effects of Sampling: Periodic repetitions in frequency domain due to sampling in time domain, recovery of continuous-time signal from its samples (reconstruction), role of anti-aliasing and reconstruction filters, examples of aliased signals (show how waveform is distorted), impulse response, finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) of discrete-time systems, difference equation.
Discrete Transformations: Discrete Fourier series, the Discrete-Time Fourier Transform, discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and fast Fourier transform (FFT): Forward and inverse transforms; coefficient ordering; time and frequency resolution; periodic extension, zero padding and modulo-M reduction; properties of the DFT, circular convolution; Cooley-Tukey decomposition, recursive application, radix-2 FFTs , time and frequency decimation, computational complexity.
Z-Transforms: Basic Theory: background idea behind the z-transform (solution to LTI discrete-time diff. eq.), calculation of z-transform and its inverse (briefly), regions of convergence, Properties of z-transforms: role in solution of discrete-time LTI systems, convolution property and graphical interpretation of the convolution operation, z-transforms of cascaded systems, stability and causality, Realization and frequency Response: Frequency response (Magnitude and Phase), representation of LTI systems with rational polynomials, block-form implementations of a rational polynomial transfer function
Digital Filters: FIR filters- linear phase filters, specifications, design using window, optimal and frequency sampling methods; IIR filters- specifications, design using impulse invariant, bi-linear z-transformation, least-square methods, linear phase, Butterworth, Chebychev, Inverse Chebychev, Bessel and elliptic filters, finite precision effects in implementing digital filters.
EEE – 326 Digital Signal Processing Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 325.
EEE – 331 Electromagnetic Fields & Waves
Vector analysis: Reviews of vector analysis.
Electrostatics: Coulomb’s law and forces, Electric field intensity, Electrical flux density, Gauss’s-theorem with application, Electrostatic potential, Equipotential surfaces, Boundary conditions, Method of images, Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations and its solutions, Energy of an electrostatic system.
Magnetostatics: Concept of magnetic field, flux density and magnetic field intensity. Faraday’s law, Biot-Savart law and Ampere’s law, vector magnetic potential; Energy of magnetostatic system; Mechanical forces and torque’s in electrical and magnetic fields; Solutions to static field problems;
Electromagnetic fields and its radiation: Introduction to displacement current, Derivation of Maxwell’s equation in different co-ordinate systems and its application. Boundary conditions for time varying systems, Retarded potentials.
The electrostatics of circuits: Circuit concepts and its derivation from the field equations. High frequency circuit concepts, Circuit impedance’s, Concepts of good and perfect conductors, Depth of penetration, internal impedance, Power loss calculation, Skin effect of practical conductors.
Propagation and reflection of electromagnetic wave in unbounded media: Plane wave propagation, Polarization, Power flow and pointing theorem, Transmission line analogy, Reflection from conductor and conducting dielectric boundary.
Radio wave propagation: Plane wave propagation through ionosphere and ground wave propagation. Effect of earth curvature on propagation.
EEE – 333 Communication Engineering I
Introduction of communication systems: Basic principles, fundamental elements, system limitations.
Information Theory: Information and system capacity, information transmission, entropy, continuous channel capacity, transmission through electrical network.
Analog communication: AM, FM, PM, DSB, SSB, VSB, ISB.
Radio Engineering: AM, FM, PM transmitter & receiver, super heterodyne receiver.
Digital communication: Introduction, Nyquist sampling theorem, quantization of analog system, quantization noise, PAM, PWM, PPM, PCM, LOGPCM, and systems, Digital modulations, ASK, FSK, PSK, DPSK, MSK, M-array digital modulation, QAM, QPSK, delta modulation, multi carrier modulation, line coding, frame construction, Error Probability.
Multiplexing: Space division multiplexing, frequency division multiplexing, time division multiplexing, and code division multiplexing.
Noise: Physical sources of noise, types of noise, calculation of noise, SNR & noise figure, calculation of noise figure, noise temperature, equivalent noise resistance.
EEE – 334 Communication Engineering I Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 333.
EEE – 335 Microprocessors & Interfacing
Introduction to different types of Microprocessors: 8 bit, 16 bit, 32 bit and their architectures, Pin diagrams and junctions, Pentium microprocessors and Co-processors, RISK & CISC processor. EPROM and RAM (2764 and 6264), Instruction sets and assembly language programming.
Microprocessor peripherals and their interfacing: Introduction to some available microprocessor peripherals IC’s and their applications such as 8251, 8253, 8254, 8255, 8257, 8259, 8279. A/D and D/A converter interfacing.
Standard for bus architectures and ports: ISA, EISA, MCA, PCI, VESA, Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP),Universal Serial Bus (USB), RS-232C, RS-423A, RS-449 and RS-366, IEEE-488 BUS and Bus system in a Multiprocessor System.
Introduction to Networking: Network architectures, Introduction to ISO reference model.
Introduction to operating system and Memory management.
Microcontroller and embedded system: Introduction to AT89C52.
EEE – 336 Microprocessors & Interfacing Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 335.
EEE – 411 Power System Analysis
Power network representations: P.U method of performance calculation, P.U. impedance of three winding transformers, Power flow in simple systems, Load flow studies of large systems using the Gauss-Seidel methods; Control of voltage, power and reactive power; Symmetrical three phase faults on synchronous machine, Symmetrical Components: Sequence impedance and sequence networks of generators, transformers and lines, sequence network of systems, Unsymmetrical Faults: Single line to ground fault, line to line fault, double line to ground fault.
Recent trends in transmission system: Overview of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS), high voltage dc transmission system (HVDC) and SCADA.
Power system stability: The stability problem of power system, distinction between steady state and transient stability, the swing equation, equal area criterion and its applications, solution of swing equation, factors affecting transient stability, improving stability.
EEE – 412 Power System Analysis Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 411.
EEE – 413 Switchgear & Protection
Philosophy of switchgear and protection, circuit breakers, principle of arc extinction in DC and AC circuit breakers, recovery voltage, rate of rise of recovery voltage and their transient phenomena, switching surges, disconnection of unloaded transformer and transmission line, speed of circuit breaker. Construction, operation, rating, testing andmaintanance of bulk oil and minimum oil circuit breakers, SF_{6} circuit breaker, Vacuum circuit breakers, Air circuit breakers and Air blast circuit breakers. Rating, selection and testing of circuit breakers.
Fuse: Commercially available fuses, their constructions, characteristics and applications.
Relays: Types, construction, principle, operating characteristics and application of over current, overvoltage, distance, positive sequence, negative sequence, zero sequence, differential, IDMT, reactance, directional, power and impedance relays, balanced current relaying of parallel line, ground fault relaying, pilot relaying principles, protection relay schemes for generators, transformers, line feeders, buses, motor, generator and power systems, reactors, lightning arrestors, surge absorbers, ground wire, generators grounding, co-ordination of over current relay. Solid state devices in the construction of static relays, types of static relays.
EEE – 414 Switchgear & Protection Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 413.
EEE – 415 Control System
Introduction to control system: Conventional control systems, open loop versus closed loop feedback control system, input output relationship, Mathematical modeling of physical systems, block diagrams, DC machine dynamics, transient response, performance criteria, steady state response to step, ramp, and parabolic inputs, poles and zeros, frequency response from pole-zero diagram, Routh’s stability criterion; canonical forms, transfer functions and signal flow graph.
Modern control system: Introduction, state variable analysis, controllability and observability, application of Eigen value, linear control system design by state feedback, SFG to state variable, transfer function to state variable and state variable to transfer function.
Stability of control system: Routh-Harzwith criterion, root locus technique, bode plot, Nyquist method, frequency response analysis, Nicholes chart, compensation.
Controller design: On-off, fuzzy, P, PI, PD and PID types, microprocessor control, introduction to programmable logic controllers (PLC), temperature control system, position control system.
EEE – 416 Control System Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 415.
EEE – 423 Communication Engineering II
Telephony: Introduction to telephone system, principles, microphone, receiver and elements of telephone.
Ex-change: Introduction to switching systems, strowger and crossbar exchange, digital exchange, signaling & switching technique, traffic theory, PABX system, telephone/exchange tariff measurement.
Mobile communication: Introduction, concept, evolution and fundamentals, analog and digital cellular systems, cellular radio system, frequency reuse, co-channel interference, cell splitting and components, Mobile radio propagation, propagation characteristics, models for radio propagation, antenna at cell site and mobile antenna, frequency management and channel assignment, fundamentals, spectrum utilization, fundamentals of channel assignment, fixed channel assignment, non-fixed channel assignment, traffic and channel assignment, handoffs and dropped calls, reasons and types, forced handoffs, mobile assisted handoffs and dropped call rate.
Introduction to networks: ISDN, B-ISDN, LAN, MAN, WAN, BLUETOOTH, ATM, and multimedia communication, Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast.
Introduction to optical fiber communication, satellite and radar communication.
EEE – 424 Communication Engineering II Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 423.
EEE – 425 Power Plant Engineering
Introduction to thermal, hydro, nuclear and magneto-hydrodynamic power stations. Nuclear reactor, rector construction and control, power reactors, central station reactors, nuclear hazards.
Variable load problems, plotting and analysis of load curves, chronological load curves and load duration curve, energy load curve and its use, load factor, capacity factor, demand factor, utilization factor, diversity factor etc. and their impact over the cost analysis of power generation and utilization, load forcasting, selection of units and plant location.
Load shearing: Base load and peak load plants, use of chronological load curves to distribute load among units.
Power plant economics: Economic operation of power plants, input-output curve, heat rate curve, incremental rate curve, use of incremental rate curve for optimum load scheduling. Transmission line loss, determination of loss co-efficient, economic conductor selection, Kelvin’s law, graphical method for location of distribution systems. Tariff and tariff design, bus system, importance of power control, current limiting reactors, different types of bus system layout, forces on bus selection in case of short circuit.
Elective Course I:
EEE – 441 High Voltage Engineering
High voltage DC: Rectifier circuits, voltage multipliers, Van-de-Graaf and electrostatic generators. High voltage AC: Cascaded transformers and Tesla coils. Impulse voltage: Shapes, mathematical analysis, codes and standards, single and multi-stage impulse generators, tripping and control of impulse generators. Breakdown in gas, liquid and solid dielectric materials. High voltage measurements and testing. Over-voltage phenomenon and insulation coordination. Lightning and switching surges, basic insulation level, surge diverters and arresters.
EEE – 443 Power System Operation & Control
Principles of power system operation: SCADA, conventional and competitive environment. Unit commitment, static security analysis, state estimation, optimal power flow, automatic generation control and dynamic security analysis, state estimation, voltage security analysis, optimal power flow, generation control, supervisory control and data acquisition, optimal power now, generation control, dynamic security analysis and ancillary services.
EEE – 445 Power System Protection
Purpose of power system protection. Criteria for detecting faults: over current, differential current, difference of phase angles, over and under voltages, power direction, symmetrical components of current and voltages, impedance, frequency and temperature. Instrument transformers: CT and PT. Electromechanical, electronic and digital Relays: basic modules, over current, differential, distance and directional. Trip circuits. Unit protection schemes: Generator, transformer, motor, bus bar, transmission and distribution lines. Miniature circuit breakers and fuses. Circuit breakers: Principle of arc extinction, selection criteria and ratings of circuit breakers, types – air, oil, SF6 and vacuum.
EEE – 447 Power System Reliability
Review of probability concepts. Probability distribution: Binomial, Poisson, and Normal. Reliability concepts: Failure rate, outage, mean time to failure, series and parallel systems and redundancy. Markov process. Probabilistic generation and load models. Reliability indices: Loss of load probability and loss of energy probability. Frequency and duration. Reliability evaluation techniques of single area system.
EEE – 451 Solid State Devices
Semiconductors in equilibrium: Energy bands, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, Fermi levels, electron and hole concentrations, temperature dependence of carrier concentrations and invariance of Fermi level. Carrier transport processes and excess carriers: Drift and diffusion, generation and recombination of excess carriers, built-in-field, Einstein relations, continuity and diffusion equations for holes and electrons and quasi-Fermi level. PN junction: Basic structure, equilibrium conditions, contact potential, equilibrium Fermi level, space charge, non-equilibrium condition, forward and reverse bias, carrier injection, minority and majority carrier currents, transient and AC conditions, time variation of stored charge, reverse recovery transient and capacitance. Bipolar Junction Transistor: Basic principle of pnp and npn transistors, emitter efficiency, base transport factor and current gain, diffusion equation in the base, terminal currents, coupled-diode model and charge control analysis, Ebers-Moll equations and circuit synthesis. Metal-semiconductor junction: Energy band diagram of metal semiconductor junctions, rectifying and ohmic contacts. MOS structure: MOS capacitor, energy band diagrams and flat band voltage, threshold voltage and control of threshold voltage, static C-V characteristics, qualitative theory of MOSFET operation, body effect and current-voltage relationship of a MOSFET. Junction Field-Effect-Transistor: Introduction, qualitative theory of operation, pinch-off voltage and current-voltage relationship.
EEE – 453 VLSI Design
VLSI technology: Top down design approach, technology trends and design styles. Review of MOS transistor theory: Threshold voltage, body effect, I-V equations and characteristics, latch-up problems, NMOS and CMOS inverter, pass-transistor and transmission gates. CMOS circuit characteristics and performance estimation: Resistance, capacitance, rise and fall times, delay, gate transistor sizing and power consumption. CMOS circuit and logic design: Layout design rules and physical design of simple logic gates. CMOS subsystem design: Adders, multiplier and memory system, arithmetic logic unit. Basic design methodologies: full custom and semi-custom design. Programmable logic arrays (PLAs), Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), I/O systems. VLSI testing: objectives and strategies. Introduction to VHDL Hardware description Language.
EEE – 455 Optoelectronics
Optical properties in semiconductor: Direct and indirect band-gap materials, radiative and non-radiative recombination, optical absorption, photo-generated excess carriers, minority carrier life time, luminescence and quantum efficiency in radiation. Properties of light: Particle and wave nature of light, polarization, interference, diffraction and blackbody radiation. Light emitting diode (LED): Principles, materials for visible and infrared LED, internal and external efficiency, loss mechanism, structure and coupling to optical fibers. Stimulated emission and light amplification: Spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein relations, population inversion, absorption of radiation, optical feedback and threshold conditions. Semiconductor Lasers: Population inversion in degenerate semiconductors, laser cavity, operating wavelength, threshold current density, power output, hetero-junction lasers, optical and electrical confinement. Introduction to quantum well lasers. Photo-detectors: Photoconductors, junction photo-detectors, PIN detectors, avalanche photodiodes and phototransistors. Solar cells: Solar energy and spectrum, silicon and Schottkey solar cells. Modulation of light: Phase and amplitude modulation, electro-optic effect, acousto-optic effect and magneto-optic devices. Introduction to integrated optics.
EEE – 457 Biomedical Engineering
Physics of human body: The cell, Body fluid, Musculo-skeletal system, Respiratory system, nervous system, The circulatory system, The body as a control system, The heart, Bioelectricity, Work done by heart, blood pressure and its measurements, Membrane potentials, molecular basis of muscle contraction, basic electrical signals from the muscles.
Interaction of wave and radiation with human body: Body’s detector and matter wave, speech noise, physiological effects of intense matter waves, Interaction of electromagnetic radiation on living matter, penetration of ray’s into tissue.
Biological effects of ionizing radiation: Dosimetry, primary effects, Biophysical effects of whole body irradiation, radiation measurement and protection.
Biopotentials electrodes and amplifiers: Biopotential electrode, sensors, Transducers and bioelectric amplifiers, Electromagnetic interference of medical electronic equipment, Electrical activity of excitable cells, volume conductor field, functional organization of peripheral nervous system, ENG, EMG, ECG, ERG, EEG, MEG. Electro surgery generator.
Ultrasound imaging: Transducers, Absorption and attenuation of ultrasound, scan mode and scanning system, Transcutaneous doppler flow detector, flow meter, Ultrasonic blood pressure measurement.
EEE – 461 Optical Fibre Communication
Optical communication channel: Definition of an optical communication channel for data transmission. The concept of intensity modulation of the light carrier by baseband digital information signal. Advantage and disadvantages of optical fiber compared with metallic medium. Basic theory of light transmission in optical fiber waveguide. Types of optical fibers currently used for communication systems. Optical fiber propagating modes, power loss and various dispersive phenomena. Dispersion and its effect on the available fiber bandwidth. Special advanced optical fibers.
Optical transmitters and design techniques: Basic theory of optical energy and optical energy sources. Quantum efficiency of optical sources. Semiconductor optical sources-light emitting diode(LED) and LASER diode .Device characteristics –power spectra, lasing modes, dynamic response and source noise. Modulation bandwidth of optical sources. A comparison of LED vs. LASER. Design principals for LED and LASER drive circuits.
Optical receivers and design techniques: Basic theory of optical detection, quantum efficiency and responsively of optical detectors. Semiconductor photodiodes-PIN and APD photo detectors. Detector noise sources, the quantum limit. Detector bandwidth. Comparison PIN vs. APD. Optical receiver design principles. Low impedance high impedance and Tran impedance front-end receiver models.
Optical fiber data transmission: The characteristics of optical transmitters-transmitted optical power, linearity, response time and optical spectral line width. The interactive effects of the transmitter and optical fiber characteristics on the system bandwidth-length(e.g. material dispersion model noise).Optical inter symbol interference and equalization. Receiver noise, receiver sensitivity and the probability of error analysis. System performance and the bit error rate BER evaluations.
Optical networks, interfaces and protocols: The need for a optical data communication network in the presence of conventional data communication system. Conventional data communication systems. Optical fiber LANS and physical layer designs. Synchronous optical NET (SONET).The Fiber Distributed Data Interfaces (FDDI-1 and FDDI-2).FDDI topology, standards, protocols, construction and performance analysis. The role of FDDI in an extended LAN environment.
Advanced OFC systems and technologies: Coherent light wave communication systems WDM systems, multi access optical fiber networks, optical amplifiers and optical switching.
EEE – 462 Optical Fibre Communication Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 461.
EEE – 463 Data Communication & Computer Networks
Basic Concepts: Network hardware and software, Network topologies and categories, Reference models and standards.
Principles of Computer Communications: Physical layer: signal analysis, bandwidth and data rate, transmission media, encoding, transmission, Data link layer: framing, error control, flow control, multiple access protocols, Network layer: circuit switching, packet switching, routing, congestion control.
Standardized Networks: Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, WiFi.
Network Programming: Introduction to internetworking and TCP/IP, Socket programming, Client software, Server software: concurrent, iterative; Connection-oriented, connectionless, Multi-protocol, multi-service; Blocking mode.
EEE – 464 Data Communication & Computer Networks Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 463.
EEE – 465 Microwave Engineering
Microwave Tubes: Transit time effects. Velocity modulation, Klystron amplifier, multicavity Klystron amplifier, reflex Klystron oscillator, magnetron, test wave tube (TWT) amplifier, backward Wave Oscillator (BWO).
Transmission lines: High frequency transmission lines, smith chart, impedance matching techniques and applications.
Wave guides: Wave-guide components, cavity resonators, parallel plane, rectangular, coaxial wave-guides, antennas radiation patterns.
Antennas: Antennas & radiation, Hertzian dipole, long antennas analysis, antenna arrays, introduction to antenna array design, rhombic & slot antenna, frequency independent and log-periodic antennas, V-antenna, introduction to microstrip antenna.
EEE – 466 Microwave Engineering Lab
In this course students will perform experiments to verify practically the theories and concepts learned in EEE – 465.
VU follows the following Letter Grade and Grade Point system introduced by the UGC as a uniform grading system for all public and private universities:
Numerical Grade |
Letter Grade |
Grade Point |
---|---|---|
80% and above |
A+ |
4.00 |
75% to less than 80% |
A |
3.75 |
70% to less than 75% |
A- |
3.50 |
65% to less than 70% |
B+ |
3.25 |
60% to less than 65% |
B |
3.00 |
55% to less than 60% |
B- |
2.75 |
50% to less than 55% |
C+ |
2.50 |
45% to less than 50% |
C |
2.25 |
40% to less than 45% |
D |
2.00 |
Less than 40% |
F |
0.00 |
a. The Letter Grade A+, A, A-, B+, B-, B, C+, C and D are considered as pass grades.
b. An f grade is considered as ‘FAIL’ and in such cases students must go for a retake.
c. After completion of the program, the final transcript will be issued mentioning Letter Grade, Corresponding Grade Points, Attempted Credit, Earned Credit and CGPA.
d. Numerical marks in the Grade Sheet/Transcript will not be shown.
Final Result Preparation:
The Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) will be computed according to the following formula:
CGPA = Sum of ( Earned Credit X Corresponding GradePoints) / Total Credits